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Rao et al. 2014 claims to be the first demonstration of a brain-brain interface in humans, using EEG and TMS. Abstract We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines ...


9

Quite a bit of foundational research on skill acquisition is on how people learn to send and receive morse code. I'm no expert at morse code but it seems like it shares quite a bit with binary. For example, here is a graph of letters per minute that an operator could receive as a function of weeks of practice (Bryan & Harter, 1897). A general ...


6

There were 2 pioneering papers published in 2014, both claiming to be the first in humans. Grau et al (2014) was published first (August), but the actual experiment was conducted later (March 2014): Here we show how to link two human minds directly by integrating two neurotechnologies – BCI and CBI –, fulfilling three important conditions, namely a) ...


5

I take it you want to use eye movements for data input (rather than reading people's thoughts, which would be silly to consider). It's not the greatest idea, efficiency wise, but may have its strengths in terms of convenience. From a fairly recent (2014) review of eye based HCI: It should be noted, though, that gaze control of WIMP is noticeably slower ...


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I believe this tutorial covers exactly what you are looking for. It describes how to use a relatively cheap kit ($150) to detect eye movements and eye blinks. It includes software and hardware information.


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I am wondering whether converting someone's memory into digital data is possible or not. Not today, but it is an active area of research. One non-profit foundation, headed by computational neuroscientist Dr. Randal A. Koene (see also his personal website), that is working in this field is Carbon Copies. Dr. Koene, in collaboration dozens of others and the ...


3

Turns out these pulses are due to software latency in the OpenBCI GUI. One particular widget, the headshot widget, uses a lot of the CPU causing packet delay, and leads to the pulse pattern. Once the headshot widget is turned off, then the pulse artifact disappears. https://github.com/OpenBCI/OpenBCI_GUI/issues/349


3

BCI has rougly two different approaches to extract features. I will address them both. When EEG is recorded, you can see an pattern of activity in a particular channel over time. This is the time-domain. The time domain is predominantly used to analyze Event Related Potentials. One application within BCI is the P300 speller. A matrix of letters is shown ...


3

It is absolutely possible but it would be a step backwards. In the early days of computing, punched cards and punched tape were used for input and output. They contained binary in the form of punched holes. It was well known that many individuals could read directly from the tape. Here is an old picture of just that. http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnnnext/dam/...


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As far as I know, brain-computer interfaces based on EEG use motor-cortex responses by asking the subject to imagine body movements. E.g., a left-arm movement imagination would translate to moving the robot to the left etc. In other words, imagining the robot going left will probably result in a diffuse, poor-defined brain response, while imagined motor ...


3

If you have learned about the P300, Steven Luck's An introduction to the event-related potential technique (2014) will be of interest; the SSVEP and motor-image-related changes are used in BCI, so this book "Brain-Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice" by John and Elizabeth Wolpaw will be helpful.


3

If you look at ancient form of writing called cuneiform, that is as close to binary code as you can get. People did learn to read/write it in ancient times, but from my understanding it was so hard that it required years of training. In terms of teaching people to "speak computer" - this is very far off mark, computer programs are extremely long and ...


2

I agree with Christiaan. Similar movements are stored nearby and are thus difficult to distinguish (see How are movements stored in the brain? ), even more so with the spatial resolution of EEG. What I would like to add is that for imagery to be motor imagery, you have to imagine the movement in first person perspective. Imaging someone else to execute a ...


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Have you looked into OpenBCI? You can view their latest kickstarter here: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/openbci/openbci-biosensing-for-everybody


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Emotiv EPOC+ Research Edition can be used on Windows, Linux and Mac. It has 14 electrodes (+2 reference electrodes) and is used in several publicized studies. You can access raw data via their software "Testbench" and output it as CSV or use third party software like OpenVibe, BCI2000 and EEGLab. But the little drawbacks are: It is a wireless device, ...


2

I think the question whether this experiment will give you useful data can be split into two parts: Does the EEG reflect the emotional state ? Does the stimulus (media,pictures) induce such an emotional state ? For the first question there is a lot of research going on and this review might be a good starting point to get into the topic. Without knowing ...


2

The most recent paper that was published is Bouton et al. (2016) in Nature, but is not openly available (though can be accessed via http://sci-hub.cc/ ). The abstract of the paper is as follows: Millions of people worldwide suffer from diseases that lead to paralysis through disruption of signal pathways between the brain and the muscles. Neuroprosthetic ...


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We don't have a well tested or accepted model of how specific items are encoded in the cortex, so text to brain is still far off. However, it is possible to send information to the brain. Ramirez et al. 2013. Creating a False Memory in the Hippocampus This study (in mice) involved creating a false sense of fear associated with a particular context. This ...


2

Short answer The track record of cortical visual prosthetics is limited. However, a lot more is known on auditory prostheses (mainly cochlear implants) and retinal prostheses. In these implants, biphasic, charge balanced pulse trains are generally applied, mainly for safety reasons and to reduce current spread through the neural tissue. Sine waves have been ...


2

Detecting eye movements is generally referred to as oculometry. Oculometry can be performed using your suggested approach, namely with electrophysiological techniques. In this case the recordings are based on the dipole character of the eye. This characteristic results in detectable voltage differences when the eye moves with respect to a stationary ...


1

There is lot of way to create BCI, (SSVEP, VEP, imaginary movement, brain state, etc...). In your case it seems to be with brain states. You should first know what kind of information you will extract from your signal. In this case you will need to extract different band of frequencies (alpha, beta, gamma, theta, etc...). To do that, you can use calculate ...


1

This question is frankly a bit vague, but generally speaking (i.e. answering the question from the title) the brain uses electrochemical signaling. The trouble is, of course, we are far from fully understanding what goes on in there, or how those signals achieve all that we can do. Presently we can simulate tiny fragments of a rat's brain, as reported in ...


1

pretty simple: through direct electromagnetic stimulation of photoreceptors in the retina in patterns corresponding to letter shapes, transduced through layers of processing there, passed through the optic nerve to the lgn of the thalamus and from there to visual cortex, eventually you get a complete neural representation of the text. alternatively, you ...


1

Most brain-machine interfaces involving movement would be based on activity in primary motor cortex, which, as you said, is near the surface. Right next to that are is primary somatosensory cortex, which is the first cortical area where touch information is processed. It is also near the surface. Most of the neocortex is going to be near the surface, with ...


1

The distinction that you draw between "instrument"/eye and brain is not particularly clear, and to some people it makes more sense to think of the eye as part of the brain. Regardless, let me try and summarise some visual limitations and their causes. Our visual acuity and contrast sensitivity are limited by the optics of the eye (e.g., the lens), the ...


1

My understanding is that the eyes are actually quite poor in terms of providing the brain with a clean image. Perhaps the only areas where eyes are better than cameras are with simultaneously viewing light and dark together (high-contrast), being quite fast at focusing, and being able to see reasonably in low-light. Each eye has a full-on blind spot, and the ...


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Can I interpret your question as "Can a human brain perform complex computational tasks, like encode MD5, on par with a computer?"? To answer that question, I'm going to have to say no, that's why we invented computers in the first place. But, I think you're asking the question from more of a human performance standpoint, rather than strictly a language or ...


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