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Since I was asked in chat about binaural beats, and have been posed this question a number of times before besides, I looked into the most recent literature using Google Scholar for the single term "binaural beats" and restricted my search to papers published between 2010-2015. For convenience, this is the definition of a binaural beat I will use. When ...


12

No, inner speech does not follow the same neural pathway as speech coming in from outside. Rather, inner speech uses the same neural mechanism as outer speech - that is, speech going out. The neural mechanisms of inner speech can be studied using recently developed technologies such as fMRI imaging of subjects instructed to or prevented from engaging in ...


11

There is very little controlled, modern research on binaural beats. I could only find one source, referenced below, from the late nineties (although there are a few other, more recent non-experimental "pilot studies"). According to their study, "presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than ...


9

The Lateral Preference Inventory Coren (1993) developed an inventory for lateral preference (The Lateral Preference Inventory). Several items concerned ear preference. I found the choice of items to be quite interesting. See below for the items concerned with ear preference. Based on a large adult normative sample, a total score was created for the four ...


8

There's quite a bit of research related to this topic: Male CEOs with deeper voices make more money and manage larger companies (Mayew et al., 2013). People are more likely to say they would vote for a political candidate with a deeper voice (Klofstad et al., 2012; Tigue et al., 2011). People rate lower-pitched voices as more persuasive than higher-pitched ...


7

Short answer Yes, continuous exposure to white noise affects neural responses in the auditory system. First, it can alter the tonotopic map in the auditory cortex. Second, it can lead to reduced responsiveness of the auditory thalamus. Background Note: this answer is based on animal experiments using extreme conditions, namely a continuous noise ...


7

There are quite a few stations between cochlea and the brain and I will focus on the auditory nerve. That said, your theories (a) and (b) are both correct, and therefore (d) applies as well. (a) Neurons in the auditory nerve increase their firing rate when sound level is increased (Heil et al, 2011). This can be regarded as the primary mechanism for ...


6

There cannot be a single answer to this question which would be entirely correct. Different theoretical approaches to psychology will yield different explanations. This is evident from the other answers in this question (some which you provided) which all stem from different theoretical accounts: Evolutionary Psychology: Species evolving around water ...


6

It greatly depends on what you mean as 'noticeable' - what/why do you want to synchronise, and how it reaches the ears from physical speakers. Keep in mind that a sound source being 30cm/1 feet further from the ear is about the same effect as a millisecond of delay (speed of sound ~340m/s) - thus, synchronising on the order of microseconds is generally ...


5

From "Binaural Auditory Beats Affect Vigilance Performance and Mood": Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the ...


5

Your question made me think of JAWS, a screen reader for the blind. I have worked with visually impaired people for a while and I have always wondered how on earth they can understand the speech produced by JAWS given the sheer high speech rates they apply on their gadgets. Indeed, people with peripheral vision loss may learn to understand spoken language ...


5

Humans technically don't perceive frequencies, they perceive pitch. According to Wikipedia: the idiom relating vertical height to sound pitch is shared by most languages. citing a 1930 article by Pratt, which in turn says that: Stumpf has found that adjectives meaning high and low (or words closely related in meaning) have been applied to tones in ...


4

The location of a sound is defined on three dimensions: distance, elevation, and azimuth. When the distance between a listener and a sound source is changed there is a change in the overall level as well as the relative levels of direct and reverberant sound energy. When the elevation is changed the overall level and the direct to reverberant ratio say ...


4

It may have something to do with the manner in which the water flows. Disturbed or moving water has a frequency content/distribution that approaches noise (think ocean waves lapping up against the the shoreline/beach, which is close to white noise). Our hearing system tends to tune out when presented with white noise, mainly due to there being no ...


4

Some neuroscience papers on sound localization: Joris Philip X, Smith Philip H, and Yin Tom C.T Coincidence Detection in the Auditory System // Neuron (1998) Agmon-Snir Hagai, Carr Catherine E. and Rinzel John The role of dendrites in auditory coincidence detection // Nature (1998) Trussell Laurence O. Synaptic mechanisms for coding timing in auditory ...


4

There is probably not a large difference from what occurs during normal listening--and that is likely why speed listening is effective: a. The reason it "feels" normal is the same that any other sensory stimuli feel normal after a while: your brain habituates to the patterns of your sensory experience. If you increased the pitch of the podcast without ...


3

Siebert (1968) modelled level discrimination based on the information in the firing rate of auditory nerve fibers. The model does a reasonable job over a narrow range of conditions, but misses a large number of effects. Since Siebert's original effort, a number of more advance models have been developed. A more recent model by Colburn et. al (2003) ...


3

There is some cool evidence (e.g., Canlon et al. 1988) that low level noise exposure can actually protect you against high level noise exposure. That said, I am not sure that one should constantly expose themselves to low level sounds in the hope that it will protect them from high level sounds. Melamed et al. (1996) found that long term exposure to moderate ...


3

Often, very similar phenomena have different names when studied in different modalities, because they are studied by different communities. That's why searching for perception response times + auditory doesn't yield great results (Although I did find [1] this way). Something else to try, is to pick a highly cited paper that you did find, and then search ...


3

It generally helps to provide some sort of specification as to how well you want to control the timing. There are 4 orders of magnitude difference between the 100 ms timing accuracy required for auditory and visual stimuli to be judged simultaneous (Zampini et al. 2005) and the 0.1 ms timing accuracy required for binaural stimuli to be judged simultaneous (...


3

Imagine a music recording studio, with a band playing in the soundproof room. Now imagine 2 mic->speaker connections: A mic inside the room records the music, and plays it on a speaker outside, and then another mic records the sound coming out of that speaker, and delivers it to the recording equipment. You can imagine the loss of quality involved in that ...


3

For a general discussion of neural correlates of music perception, check out the review by Koelsch et al (2005). Menon et al (2002) provide a starting point for learning about neural correlates of timbre processing. I quote the abstract. But have a look at the article for more info Timbre is a major structuring force in music and one of the most ...


2

Yes. The phenomenon is usually referred to as Visual Dominance or Visual Capture. A very nice demonstration of it, is known as McGurk Effect, in which our vision of the speaker's lips biases our perception of the sound we hear [1]. The McGurk Effect can be seen in a demo video here. Another demonstration of a similar effect is ventriloquism, in which we ...


2

It seems apparent that generating and hearing self-directed speech during discriminatory listening would inhibit said discrimination. This is because auditory processing of self-directed speech and audio processing in discriminatory listening would have to compete for resources in decoding auditory information, leading to poorer decoding of the already low-...


2

I think the answer to this is on a question I did some time ago: Why does being in a natural environment induce some kind of "peace" state while mecha/tech ones induce the opposite? We feel relaxed when listening to the sound of water, because we associate the sound to something like a beautiful waterfall, and to waterfalls/nature, the majority of ...


2

I have found the following — all mention van Norden, (1975): Chang, A.-C., Lutfi, R., Lee, J., & Heo, I. (2016). A Detection-Theoretic Analysis of Auditory Streaming and Its Relation to Auditory Masking. Trends in Hearing, 20DOI: 10.1177/2331216516664343 PMCID: PMC5029798 Abstract Research on hearing has long been challenged with understanding ...


2

Crosstalk needs to be taken into consideration, but with reasonable controls it can be made insignificant. Interaural attenuation can vary between less than 40 dB to over 60 dB depending on frequency, the type of headphone, and how well it is coupled to the head. If you have 40 dB of interaural attenuation and present the sounds at less than 40 dB SL (...


2

You're not really blocking them out. It's more that you're processing the language of the person you're focusing on. You could do exactly what you describe at reasonably high volume levels. Though the level is not equal for all people. Young children and people with attention difficulties Why it's Difficult to Listen to two People


2

Ignoring your pictures for a second, it sounds like what you are referring to is pitch circularity. Diana Deutsch was a pioneer in this area. The key is that generating these sounds is tricky and that unless you inspect the "correct" dimensions of the stimuli you will not see the differences.


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