As far as I understand, neuropsychology gains most of its insights from the reconciliation of lesions of the brain and cognitive impairments. Normal functioning (both of the brain and the mind) plays a less important role in neuropsychology.
My question is:
Which role does cognitive high-performance play in neuropsychology? Which attempts are there to map cognitive high-performance processes to neurophysiological structures and processes?
Examples of cognitive high-performance:
- eidetic memory (e.g. Stephen Wiltshire)
- memorization of pi (e.g. Akira Haraguchi)
- mental calculators (e.g. Gert Mittring)
- advanced mathematics
- advanced chess playing
The mere fact that for such high-performers there are possibly enlarged (and internally more strongly and probably more specifically connected) areas of the brain (and connections between them) is not what I am looking for. Especially for the more mathematical and intricate cases there must be more than that.
The main difference between neuropsycholgy by impairment and neuropsychology by high-performance seems to be that in the former case you can more easily perform statistical studies (but also single-case studies), in the latter case you can only perform single-case studies.