# All Questions

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3answers
18k views

### Positive and negative reinforcement and punishment effectiveness

According to Skinner, positive reinforcement is superior to punishment in altering behavior. As Skinner discussed, positive reinforcement is superior to punishment in altering behavior. He ...
1answer
2k views

### What is a validated single-item measure of mood?

Has anyone validated, proposed or tested a single-item state-based positive affect or happiness measure? I am particularly interested in something for tracking mood every day.
2answers
2k views

### What form might Jungian archetypes take in the brain?

Modern psychology and psychiatry are very well grounded in scientific principles. Both, however, have a history in various analytical philosophies. Jung had the notion of an archetype, a universally ...
1answer
314 views

### Cognitive models for transfer of skills

Recently a question was asked about the benefit of playing chess on cognitive abilities. More specifically, how chess would improve understanding technical texts. Many other questions are also focused ...
2answers
259 views

### Predictive Experiments on Neuroscience of Free Will

It seems to be very interesting that we can use modern neuroscience and cognitive science research to inform us about the ages-old question of free-will vs. determinism. The standard experiment was ...
1answer
301 views

### Computational models of early learning in children

What are currently used biologically plausible computational models/frameworks of early learning in children? Personally, I have used cascade correlation neural nets to model pronoun acquisition in ...
3answers
2k views

### Do measures of Big 5 personality have a positive bias towards extraverted, conscientious, emotionally stable, ageeable and open individuals?

Background: One free measures of the Big 5 is the IPIP. I have noticed that IPIP items seem to have a positive bias towards items loading on the extraversion (EX), emotional stability (ES), ...
1answer
509 views

### How do the brains of savants such as Orlando Serrell and Temple Grandin compare to a standard brain?

There are the examples of Orlando Serrell and Temple Grandin, who remember quite a lot, due to autism. How do their brains compare to a standard brain? See also: Partitions and Volume:
2answers
525 views

### Are different types of long term memories stored in different parts of the brain?

I recently had some questions concerning the capacity of the brain's memory: Are different types of long term-memories like know-how, your-life, etc. remembered in different parts of the brain? If ...
1answer
746 views

### What is the capacity of the human brain?

What would a reasonable estimate be of the data capacity of the human brain expressed in bytes?
1answer
427 views

### Human behaviour in one-shot perfect information games

Background A one-shot game is one where two participants have some set of actions $\{1, ... , n\}$, they make their decision on which option to take (without knowing the decision of their partner, or ...
2answers
6k views

### Is there a reasonable scientific backing for Carl Jung's type theories?

I have read a lot on how most psychologists reject the Myers Briggs Type Indicator for its lack of scientific backing, but I have yet to find much information on the acceptance of Carl Jung's theories,...
4answers
3k views

### How valid are reaction times collected from online studies?

Online studies promise the possibility of greatly increased numbers of and variability in populations to study, but there are many potential concerns and need for validation, and diving in head first ...
1answer
750 views

### Is there any evidence that fluid intelligence is malleable?

So although working memory training was somewhat of a fad (and I guess some benefits did come out of training, like improved attention/executive function), reviews such as Melby-Lervåg et al. (2016) ...
8answers
11k views

### Are brain waves electromagnetic waves?

Depending upon its activity, the brain emits waves, which represent the summation of individual neurons firing. Are these waves electromagnetic waves?
2answers
147 views

### Criteria for evaluating cognitive systems

In the first chapter of the book "How to Build a Brain", Chris Eliasmith quickly establishes some criteria which he will use to evaluate Spaun, the cognitive system described in the book. He describes ...
9answers
2k views

### Can the mind affect the physical brain? - a simple thought experiment

Scientists maintain that "a physical action requires a physical cause". However, if I am in deep thought about my dead spouse, for example, and a tear comes to my eye, how is it that the mind (thought)...
2answers
4k views

### What free scientific measures of Big 5 personality are available?

I'm aware of a few freely available scientific measures of Big 5 personality. IPIP: Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) Questions: What other free scientific Big 5 personality tests are ...
2answers
225 views

### Why do brains oscillate within specific frequency ranges?

Why do brains oscillate within specific frequencies? I have two specific questions: What are the physiological mechanisms which generate the oscillations within these very frequencies? What would ...
3answers
482 views

### What is it called to think without language? Are there studies around it?

I think there are two types of thinking: with and without language. For my entire life, in my opinion, I have always thought without language. Some people say it's impossible and that we think with ...
1answer
44k views

### How to calculate IQ score based on raw score and adjust for age?

I am having a hard time grasping how IQ scores are calculated. I think it has something to do with their age score ratio multiplied by 100. Say I have a test that holds 30 questions. How would I ...
2answers
1k views

### Is there a difference between visual short term memory and visual working memory?

As far as I can tell the two terms are used interchangeably. Do these two separate terms exist for historical reasons, or is there a distinction I'm missing?
4answers
869 views

### Getting started with EEG data

I want to get started with getting signals from EEG and learning on how I can read data. I have some programming skills, so designing a database and manipulating data with ruby (python seems also cool,...
3answers
5k views

### What correlation research has been done on MBTI vs Big5?

Big5 is probably the most used personality model in research, while MBTI has not gained status of being scientifically supported. What exact research has been done on correlating the two models? ...
3answers
594 views

### Does the brain have a 'debugging mode'?

In computer programming we have a debugger that we can use to execute a program step by step. In that mode, the program can be suspended and we can analyze the state of the hardware, modify the state ...
1answer
546 views

### How does task difficulty schedule affect the rate and efficiency of perceptual learning?

In perceptual learning (line length/orientation discrimination, visual target detection, tone frequency discrimination, etc), when training people or animals to perform a task better, is there an ...
3answers
335 views

### Does a person's brain still contain a record of daily events?

Does a person's brain have a record of every event that happened during a person's lifetime? Is it possible to recall any of those events and is it possible to recall those events in detail? For ...
2answers
494 views

### Is neurolinguistic programming effective in influencing sales processes?

In my country neurolinguistic programming (NLP) has become very popular in sales departments. Therefore, I wonder if there are any experiments which examine the contribution of NLP to the sales ...
1answer
197 views

### How are movements stored in the brain?

The high level flow of information through the brain for the purpose of motor control is well established. It is also known the cerebellum stores many different movements, while also participating in ...
1answer
375 views

### How does emotional pain cause as much suffering as physical pain?

Consider someone who has a serious injury. Example examples include losing a limb, being shot or falling from a great height. It is easy for the human mind and science to comprehend and explain why ...
3answers
3k views

### How to measure galvanic skin response with wearables?

I'm trying to measure galvanic skin response in real-time with a wrist-wearable device, similar to what is being done in the paper "Using Noninvasive Wearable Computers to Recognize Human Emotions ...
3answers
211 views

### When can we say that machines are conscious?

We have already witnessed complex computing systems winning chess games and IBM Watson beat his human counterparts at a game of 'Jeopardy!'. However, so far we have not seen signs of consciousness ...
2answers
16k views

### Is it better to study multiple subjects simultaneously or focus on one subject intensely at a time?

Since I will soon have a bit of free time, I thought I'd use it to enhance my knowledge pool. I chose four subjects that always interested me (but that are not related) and thought I'd dive in a bit ...
3answers
273 views

### How, other than pharmacotherapy, can those diagnosed with thought disorders be treated?

In general, major depressive disorder is treated with pharmacotherapy, and talk therapy, as well as other little things written below: People know what the little things you can do if you're ...
2answers
960 views

### What exactly is meant when it is said that only you can make yourself happy?

From Lifehack: Thinking that having a significant other will complete you. If you are not a whole person already, then having a romantic partner will not make you whole. Plus, it puts a ...
2answers
286 views

### Can memorising a new thing erase existing memories?

Homer: But every time I learn something new, it pushes out something old. Remember that time I took a home wine-making course and forgot how to drive? Marge: That's because you were drunk. Yeah, ...
4answers
689 views

### Does the scarcity of female programmers, suggest that men are more intelligent than women?

Developing software is simultaneously artistic and scientific, which accounts for its appeal for some of the smartest and intuitive people on the planet There is a generally observable and most ...
2answers
1k views

### Are woman more Judging than men in the MBTI?

Since I lack of academic formation please be tolerant if I write something not correct. As you know the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test is based on 4 personality dimensions (E/I, S/N, T/F, J/...
2answers
306 views

### Is it really impossible for a hypnotist to make a participant do something against their will?

Is there any evidence of a hypnotist making someone do something against their will while in a hypnotic state? I know there are many sites by practicioners that state it is impossible, but they have ...
2answers
279 views

### Has “induced savantism” been further explored beyond Snyder 2009?

The Mechanism/Neurological subsection of the Wikipedia article Savant Syndrome says: Savant syndrome results from damage to the left anterior temporal lobe, an area of the brain key in processing ...
1answer
870 views

### Does adult neurogenesis occur only in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus?

The scholarpedia article on this subject says: Adult neurogenesis is the process of generating new neurons which integrate into existing circuits after fetal and early postnatal development has ...
3answers
376 views

### How to better remember your dreams?

Often times, I wake up with an amazing, yet fleeting glimpse of a dream I had. I would like to recollect those events I had in my dream, and try to adopt ways to better remember those dreams. There ...
2answers
900 views

### How to estimate an expected effect size for a planned psychology study?

When planning a psychological study, researchers are often asked to formulate an estimate of expected effect sizes for important hypotheses in the study. This might be the expected group mean ...
2answers
4k views

### Is Maslow's hierarchy of needs really accurate at labeling sex as a physiological “need”?

Is Maslow's hierarchy of needs really accurate at labeling sex as a physiological "need"? If so, would that mean that single/celibate people cannot live self-actualized lives unless they have some ...
4answers
532 views

### In what ways do our brains use compression?

I am reading a book on information theory and one line in the book states that "Brains are the ultimate compression and communication systems." However, there is no further elaboration on the matter. ...
4answers
436 views

### How do memories come up for no apparent reason? Is this evidence that we remember everything?

As I was driving, all of a sudden the name "Holden Caufield" came to my mind. It sounded really familiar. I googled the name and it was the main character in The Catcher in the Rye. The last time I ...
1answer
942 views

### Difference between content-addressable memory and associative memory?

Often when I'm reading theoretical neuroscience publications, such as "Towards an integration of deep learning and neuroscience", as well as "Memory and the Computational Brain", theorists often ...
0answers
306 views

### Brainwave audio recordings and beta waves: how do they affect positivity?

I know a little bit about negative and positive energies of human bodies and how it all works. Recently, on Facebook, I saw an ad promoting some sort of audio recording and that it has something to do ...
1answer
232 views

### Is there a difference between physiological stimulations and psychological stimulations?

From what I understand, physiological stimulation (or stimulus or sensation) "refers to sensory excitation, the action of various agents or forms of energy (stimuli) on receptors that generate ...
3answers
2k views

### Is there any evolutionary theory for self-destructive behavior?

Self-destructive behavior is usually related to the stress response. Given that the world is a big source of stress and stress usually is also a source of evolution (since we must adapt to survive), ...

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