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Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions about definitions, names, and terms used in the psychology & neuroscience literature.

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165
votes
6answers
12k views

How is it that taking a break from a problem sometimes allows you to figure out the answer?

As a computer programmer, I have noticed an interesting phenomenon: If I am stuck on a particular problem in my work, often if I stop thinking about the problem and do something else, the answer will ...
23
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2answers
2k views

Subconscious vs Unconscious

From what I know, we use the term 'subconscious' to refer to the things that we can bring into our conscious. and, we use the term 'unconscious' for things that we can't know, they come automatically ...
14
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2answers
3k views

What is the relation between measures, constructs and concepts?

It is uncontroversial to say that the cognitive sciences do not exclusively deal with directly observable phenomena, but nonetheless aim to study the physical causes of behavior and cognition ...
22
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2answers
11k views

Is there a term for trying to remember a word, but only remembering its first letter?

This happens to me frequently. I'll say, "Oh you know that guy... uhh... I can't remember his name. But he starts with a 'Z'." You can remember part of the word but not the whole word. Is there a ...
14
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4answers
925 views

Do people have a tendency to stick to one opinion after they formed it?

Scytale's assessment, from the science fiction novel "Dune Messiah" (1969) When a creature has developed into one thing, he will choose death rather than change into his opposite. While reading ...
5
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2answers
314 views

Word for naming your negative self-talk to overcome it

I'm trying to find some research - or at least a professional analysis - on the concept of naming your negative self-talk so that you can "take away its power" - that is, separate it from yourself and ...
3
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1answer
125 views

How to refer to the phenomenon of people only absorbing evidence which confirms their beliefs?

I knew a psychologist who was calling it self-referentiality. People are always trying to see only the sentence which confirm their beliefs. What's the correct name for this?
28
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2answers
3k views

What is an effective metric of complexity for an Artificial Neural Network?

After asking the question What is the most complex neural network... I realized I don't really have a good metric of "complexity" in a general sense. The simplest measure would likely be count of ...
11
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7answers
11k views

Are brain waves electromagnetic waves?

Depending upon its activity, the brain emits waves, which represent the summation of individual neurons firing. Are these waves electromagnetic waves?
8
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3answers
476 views

What is it called to think without language? Are there studies around it?

I think there are two types of thinking: with and without language. For my entire life, in my opinion, I have always thought without language. Some people say it's impossible and that we think with ...
10
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4answers
787 views

What is the name of the bias when one expects you to possess his knowledge?

What is the name of bias or fallacy when, often while in argument, someone expects you to know the same things as he does. Usually, you just say "well, how should have I known that. I'm not inside of ...
8
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2answers
370 views

What is the psychological term for disregarding correct but unwanted information?

Sometimes people seem to be very resistant to information that is in conflict with prior beliefs, even when this new information is very plausible. For example, a patient might change a doctor, ...
5
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2answers
726 views

What is the term of having a high perceived confidence while having limited knowledge?

What is the term of the state in which one acts to be very experienced even though he does not appear to know everything. And, because of his confidence, is able to persuade people that he/she is ...
4
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2answers
253 views

Brain-computer interface with EEG: how to name imaginary movement of a non-self object?

I am working on Brain-Computer interfaces. In my project we try to control the movement of a robot in three directions, namely forward, right and left. We have done an EEG experiment where we have ...
1
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1answer
110 views

What's the term in psychology for the way people think of concepts using examples?

I learned about this but forget its name. The idea is that when people hear a word or think of a concept they tend to come up with certain examples that fit the idea more than others. For example, if ...
11
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3answers
44k views

What is the difference between biological and artificial neural networks?

I read that neural networks are of two types: a) Biological neural networks b) Artificial neural networks (or ANN) I read, "Neural Networks are models of biological neural structures," and the ...
26
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2answers
4k views

Is there a term for individuals who can “visualize” numbers and advanced mathematics?

I recently saw an episode of 60 Minutes about Jacob Barnett, a 13 year old boy who is currently attending advanced physics classes at a local university and was portrayed by the show as being a child ...
14
votes
1answer
11k views

What is the scientific term for unexpected, spontaneous dream recall?

I'm interested if there's a term for spontaneous dream recall. I will try to define the phenomenon I'm talking about. Over 10 years ago, I started to notice that I can spontaneously recall dreams, ...
14
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5answers
3k views

Is psychology a science?

I've read some books from behavioral economy to emotional intelligence, and it kind of makes sense, but when it comes to psychology it feels to me a bit like astrology, where there are some things ...
13
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4answers
32k views

Difference between Instinct and Intuition

Sometimes I've heard people using the term gut feeling rather than their 'intuition or instinct' and I'm not sure which one do they mean. So, can both the terms be used interchangeably and simply ...
9
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1answer
196 views

Is there evidence for a unique isolated internal representation of loved ones?

Some time ago, I've read that the most significant people in a person's life have their own internal representation/model of within the person's mind. For example: An internal representation of a ...
10
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3answers
5k views

Classification of Attachment Styles

The concept of attachment and different attachment styles has a long tradition in developmental psychology. Mary Ainsworth developed a classification for three different attachment styles that she ...
8
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3answers
2k views

What is the name of the cognitive bias where an expert overestimates the knowledge of others?

I'm looking for a name of a cognitive bias that describes the following phenomenon: A person has been exposed to some area of expertise from a very early age (think 7-10), and for an extended period ...
7
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3answers
256 views

Is there a term for a person who moves from one field of expertise to a new field and has an inflated belief in their competence in the new field?

Person A has led a successful career and is very well renowned in field A. Later in life, person A moves to field B, a field they're curious about but have very little experience in. Person A ...
7
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2answers
2k views

What is the scientific definition of “brain training”?

A lot of companies are selling products under the heading of "brain training", and "brain exercises", "brain games" such as Nintendo DS Brain Training, Lumosity, and a host of other companies. I'm ...
6
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3answers
207 views

Is there a difference between ADD and ADHD?

These terms are often used interchangeably. Is there a difference?
5
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1answer
102 views

Is there a survey regarding the meaning of distress in the definition of mental disorder?

Although without a doubt discussed in professional circles for a long time before, the definition of mental disorder has been recently brought to the limelight by Trump narcissism debate: “Everyone ...
7
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1answer
244 views

What are the meanings of the word 'gender'?

Gender is often loosely described as the psychological parallel of sex. But this is more like a simile than a description. It is also often noted as being in the mind e.g. the genderbread man. When ...
26
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4answers
16k views

Is pedophilia a sexual orientation or a mental disorder?

There are some different claims being made that pedophilia is a sexual orientation rather than a mental disorder. At the moment there seems to be a growing group of psychologists advocating that ...
8
votes
4answers
776 views

Is there a specific term for false justifications?

I'm not sure "false justifications" is the right term, but it's the closest I can think of. I'm referring to a situation in which a person has already made up his mind for reasons he won't publicly ...
8
votes
3answers
222 views

What is the name of the effect whereby socialising in a group reinforces group beliefs?

Background: There's this effect when you have some idea, i.e. that eating other people is (probably) cool, you join the group of like minded people, you talk about how tasty people are, everyone ...
6
votes
1answer
125 views

Technical term for the loss of words in your mother-tongue when speaking a different language

I am basically looking for two words which are, though, related to some degree. It might even be that ultimately the same word is the answer to both parts of this question. I split them up into two ...
11
votes
3answers
508 views

What is the term for a psychological effect which does not have a neurobiological/genetic basis?

When a psychological condition is the result of irregular brain structures or neurotransmitter imbalances we say the condition has a neurobiological basis; this is analogous to the classic Nature in ...
10
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1answer
1k views

Do the motivations and fears behind Enneagram have any scientific reasoning?

Background The Enneagram personality typing system defines set of motivations and basic fears for its nine personality types among people. The system seems to be aimed at personal development of a ...
3
votes
1answer
202 views

What is the relationship between language and the level of comprehension of consciousness?

I asked a similar/related question a couple days ago about how language and/or culture affect an individual's cognitive capacity. I'm looking for materials, if any, on the subject of a language's ...
18
votes
2answers
30k views

What was the experiment where you pour liquid from a tall container to a short one and ask a child which has more?

From Developmental psychology 101 I remember an experiment where the person conducting the experiment would pour liquid from a tall, narrow container into a short, narrow container and ask a child if ...
8
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3answers
5k views

What is the difference between affect and feeling?

What exactly is the difference between affect and feeling? Affect seems to refer to conscious experience: Affect is the experience of feeling or emotion. And confusingly, so does feeling: In ...
8
votes
2answers
130 views

How are musical hooks defined/studied in psychology?

I know about the common concept of a 'musical hook': a "short riff, passage, or phrase, that is used in popular music to make a song appealing and to 'catch the ear of the listener'." The Wikipedia ...
5
votes
1answer
250 views

What do you call sensations without stimuli?

Sometimes, when you close your eyes in the dark, you see what looks like sparks or flashes. Sometimes when you are tired, your vision seems to shift sideways and realign, like someone bumped into a ...
5
votes
1answer
141 views

Technical term for the temporary loss of understanding a word

I am basically looking for two words which are related to some degree. Ultimately the same word might even be the answer to both parts of this question. I split them up into two questions (see also ...
4
votes
1answer
581 views

Official term for the tendency to associate with like-minded people?

I want a term for the tendency of individuals to confirm their existing biases/opinions by seeking out and reinforcing their opinions with like-minded individuals (as far as I know, this is distinct ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Which personality theories do belong to humanistic?

I went through literature and I am confused which theories of personality belong to humanistic, in literature there is often just Rogers (who is sometimes also considered to be phenomenologic) and ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the scientific term or concept for inner thought control? [closed]

Usually when a thought arises, it seems that we quickly scurry after it, unconsciously getting caught up with whatever everyday thoughts come up. These can be invoked internally or externally. (No ...
1
vote
1answer
585 views

Why being ignored is 'painful' for human beings?

Ignoring someone is a manipulatory technique used at times. Ignoring the attacks of someone else through emotional detachment has a very strong effect on the attacker. Is there a name for this kind ...
1
vote
1answer
591 views

What is the difference between work engagement and flow?

Work engagement has three aspects: vigor, dedication, and absorption. Flow according to wikipedia "is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a ...
10
votes
2answers
648 views

What is the difference between solving a problem and acquiring a skill?

Within the confines of cognitive psychology, what is the difference between these two tasks? In the literature, playing chess is generally seen as the exemplar of problem solving. But recently (thanks ...
8
votes
2answers
947 views

Is there a scientific term for when you fall asleep because you can't handle something?

I'm wondering if there is a scientific term that describes when you fall asleep or pass out after some traumatic event? This effect happens when people witness something gruesome (a friend being ...
7
votes
2answers
527 views

Why ADHD instead of ADD? / Why predominantly hyperactive-impulsive instead of predominantly-impulsive?

The types of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are: predominantly inattentive predominantly hyperactive-impulsive combined Not sure I understand. People with ADHD are hyperactive because of ...
5
votes
3answers
129 views

Technical term for “hidden addictions”

In The Forbidden Keys to Persuasion, Blair Warren discusses seven “hidden addictions”: the need to feel needed; the need for hope in difficult situations; the need for a scapegoat (to believe our ...
5
votes
1answer
150 views

Research operationalizing so-called strategic thinking?

Is there contemporary research in trait psychology, which attempts to operationalize the structures behind a strategic thinking style? I'm thinking of a style of problem solving as taught in officer ...