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Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions about definitions, names, and terms used in the psychology & neuroscience literature.

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What is the difference between principal neurons and pyramidal cells?

I am reading Kandel's "Principals of Neural Sciences". There the book sometimes refers to excitatory neurons as principal cells, and sometimes as pyramidal cells. Can anyone tell me the difference? ...
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What is the term for doing things or behaviors that contrast to what you really feel?

For instance a person who is racist wanting to hire black people because they want to project an image that they aren't racist. Or if they doesn't like obese people but still interacts with them to ...
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Terminology: why do psychologists use “positive” and “negative”?

In a lot of places in psychology - for example in operant conditioning and in describing symptoms of psychological disorders - various things are described as "positive" and "negative". Positive ...
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Exact Medical situation name for Guided Meditation/Visualization to “Re-live a moment”

There are lots of videos & audios for Guided Visualization for particular things like forest, beach, sky etc.. But what should I exactly search to get result for "ReLive past Moment". Is there ...
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What is an empirical proof that two concepts are not independent/orthogonal?

Given there are two psychological concepts A and B that are considered to be independent/orthogonal. Would the following empirical results proof the opposite? If not why? In the first experiment A ...
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Why is the theory of mind named as such?

Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions,...
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Is there an audio equivalent of eidetic memory?

In this YouTube video by The Blaze it is claimed that Ted Cruz has "audiographic" memory. He does seem to have quite a good memory based on videos I've seen of him, but I'm not sure if Glenn Beck is ...
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What does “affect component” mean in this article on well-being?

Previous research lends support to the view that the negative affect component of well-being is strongly associated with neuroticism and that positive affect component has a similar association with ...
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Relationship and differences between psychosomatic, somatoform and idiopathic disorders

I'm really confused because it seems to me these terms overlap to some extent. Psychosomatic disorder psychosomatic adj. 1. of or pertaining to a physical disorder that is caused or notably ...
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“Dependence” in DSM-5

I've read with some interest and amusement the following first-hand account (2006) on the confusion surrounding the DSM-IV meaning of "dependence" : One of us (C.O.) was a member of the committee ...
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Definition of cognitive load

Wikipedia's page on cognitive load starts with In cognitive psychology, cognitive load refers to the effort being used in the working memory. Cognitive load theory differentiates cognitive load ...
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What is the learning/memory type which requires active contribution called?

I observed I best memorize information when I actively compile it into meaningful hierarchy. That encompasses creating PowerPoint presentations, explaining the topic to someone or writing summaries. I ...
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Why don't the Big 5 personality traits have more neutral names?

Lots of different areas of study appropriate common-language terms as jargon words with a specific meaning in the context of that particular field, but the names of the Big 5 personality traits have ...
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Any academic research/term for (some) men's preference for muscular female bodies?

While I was searching for articles on the correlates of attraction to female "feminine" faces I ran into some non-academic discussions on the attraction that some men apparently have for muscular ...
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Why does SCID call itself “Structured” when by many accounts it's semi-structured?

The "S" in SCID officially stands for "Structured" as in Structured Clinical Interview for DSM. But as far as I can tell for the last three editions (5, IV and III), non-official sources (research ...
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How is “the innermost child” framed in psychology?

In art and literature, the adults are usually depicted as having a trapped child in their hearts: The child is pure and naive, but is trapped in the adult body who is struggling to survive. I think ...
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What is the difference between psychosis and neurosis?

Given such a sentence by a Test of English as a Foreign Language textbook, Mental disorder include psychosis and neurosis. I googled and found a page In introduction, the pages says, Psychosis ...
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Whats analysis of both sides is called in psychology?

What is the scientific term or psychological term for visualizing a phenomenon, news or event in history or in daily life from both perspective. For example some event that happened in your country or ...
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Meaning of “attitudinal acceptance”

I found an interesting study called "A Comparison of Family Functioning, Life and Marital Satisfaction, and Mental Health of Women in Polygamous and Monogamous Marriages" by Al-Krenawi et al. It is ...
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Name of association phenomenon

What is the name of the problem to explain how the neural activation for "red circle and a blue triangle" is different from "blue circle and red triangle"? Just activating the neurons for "red", "blue"...
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Is “haptodysphoria” an urban legend or is there another term under which this studied?

I was googling for something like why some people don't like to touch velvet, and the top hit was https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/haptodysphoria where it's defined as An odd, disagreeable sensation ...
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What does “diffuse slowing” mean in the context of EEG and Alzheimer's?

Horvath et al. (2018) mention that: The disappearance of posterior dominant alpha rhythm and the diffuse slowing in AD (alzheimer disease) are easily detectable EEG signs for the experienced ...
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Is there a name for the idea that completing a simple task increases the likelihood of completing further tasks?

In a graduation speech to the University of Texas, Naval Adm. William H. McRaven made the following statement: "If you make your bed every morning you will have accomplished the first task of the day....
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How are musical hooks defined/studied in psychology?

I know about the common concept of a 'musical hook': a "short riff, passage, or phrase, that is used in popular music to make a song appealing and to 'catch the ear of the listener'." The Wikipedia ...
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Term for a disposition to ramble on special interests in conversation?

Some people are notorious for "going off on extended tangents," meaning: in any conversation they are prone to expound at length on subjects of personal interest without regard for the interest of, or ...
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Collective term for fun, relaxation and escapism

I'm pondering the nature and relationship of several things that I think are at least loosely related: fun, rest/relaxation and escapism. They are all things that might be loosely described as "...
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Is self-actualization really a need?

Abraham Maslow's original hierarchy of needs placed self-actualization at the very top of the list. As I understand it, self-actualization can be roughly defined as realizing one's full potential. ...
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Technical term for “hidden addictions”

In The Forbidden Keys to Persuasion, Blair Warren discusses seven “hidden addictions”: the need to feel needed; the need for hope in difficult situations; the need for a scapegoat (to believe our ...
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Stop worrying about something when other don't worry about it

I've observed a common effect that, when anxious or preoccupied about one topic, people often find relief when others are not preoccupied about that topic or are told about instances when that topic ...
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Opposite of White Bear principle?

Is there any phrase/term to describe the opposite of White Bear principle (also known as ironic process principle)? I'm looking for a word to describe the process where something eludes you the more ...
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What is the term for the “knowing what you think but can't explain it” phenomenon?

I think we all experience this phenomenon once in a while, and I am experiencing it right now. It's the feeling that whatever word one tries to say it seems to be wrong (for them) or confusing (for ...
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Term for when the more you invest yourself in something, the less you agree to drop it

I have got a few examples:: For instance when someone buys something and it turns out that it wasn't worth it, and this person tries to convince himself that he made a good choice or that the product ...
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Experiments demonstrating irreligious people spontaneously developing superstitious rituals?

I saw a video in which four adults were led into a room with a digital counter on the wall (see below), and a collection of random objects on the floor: small boxes, hand tools, stuffed animals, ...
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Why we do what we aren't allowed to do

Don't touch the red button, or don't touch that chocolate cake while I'm gone. Why is it that we most likely will touch them anyway?
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How do Terence Tao's “three stages of rigorousness” relate to cognitive science?

This is an excerpt from There’s more to mathematics than rigour and proofs of Terrence Tao: The “pre-rigorous” stage, in which mathematics is taught in an informal, intuitive manner, based on ...
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Bias of finding others guilty of own shortcomings

I haven't been in cognitive sciences for long, but in my work I have noticed a curious pattern: Individuals who overwhelmingly attribute the responsibility of their own actions to external causes, ...
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Term for Sudden Change in Beliefs

I'm familiar with terms and concepts like cognitive dissonance, confirmation bias, conformism and belief systems (a political term). I'd like to learn more about what some might call an "awakening." ...
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What is the rule that describes sufficiently large groups will have bad actors?

I once heard of a rule/law/number that described any group sufficiently large enough will have "bad" people in it. It is most often used to describe how online communities will have to deal with ...
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What does 'Taxonimize' mean here?

I was reading a news article about increasing IQ and one psychologist wrote Many of the changes in IQ are correlated to changes in schooling. One way that school increases IQ is to teach children ...
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What would be the Term for this Character Trait?

This might be the wrong place or way to ask this question but I'll give it a shot. It could be more related to literature but it does deal with a form of character or personality. In Nathaniel ...
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What's the difference between cognitive distortions and logical fallacies?

I'm doing some reading on said topics, but I struggle to really make a difference between them. I've gathered that logical fallacies are flaws in reasoning, or arguments that serve poorly to arrive ...
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Word for naming your negative self-talk to overcome it

I'm trying to find some research - or at least a professional analysis - on the concept of naming your negative self-talk so that you can "take away its power" - that is, separate it from yourself and ...
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The origin of the term “construct” in the cognitive sciences

So, I was just wondering - who can be attributed as originating the idea of a "construct" in psychology? Does the general concept of an epistemic "construct" feed directly into the way the term is ...
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In psychiatry, what does double-bookkeeping mean?

TL;DR What does double bookkeeping mean? +1 for sharing stories about your Tappy Tappy (Talbott) has always been a tad odd, but who'd blame him, right? The guy took a whole bunch of tropane ...
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How to prevent falling for Jingle-Jangle fallacies?

What are some ways to avoid the Jingle-Jangle fallacies when it comes to choosing a form of measurement in psychology research?
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What is the psychological term for reframing that uses false statements?

I want to know if there is an established psychology term for this pattern of behavior: A person does something, an action That something becomes known to one or more people, and the action is seen ...
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Does psychology have a name for emotions that a person can feel but cannot name?

This is sort of an inverse of this other question. To explain what I am looking for, I had this experience when I was a teenager that a much older friend (who wanted me to feel as part of a group of ...
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What does “unconscious memory” mean?

Is there a single notion in the cognitive sciences for "unconscious memory"? For example a in a 2015 Northwestern University press release, we find that Scientists retrieve unconscious memories ...
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What was creativity called before the 1950s, i.e. before Guilford coined the term?

It is known that Guilford coined the term, but the concept is much older. What did people in Freud's time call it? Genius? innovation? Something else?
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Precise term for a sort of social pressure

Context: It is known that some pubs and the like usually offer free drinks for females. The owner of the place expects then that more males will come and pay for a drink for themselves because a ...