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Questions tagged [reinforcement-learning]

The study of what actions an agent should take in a stochastic environment in order to maximize a cumulative reward.

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Question about stimulus-response assocation theories

I am currently reading a review called "Behaviorism, Latent Learning, and Cognitive Maps: Needed Revisions in Introductory Psychology Textbooks". In the review, the author writes: The ...
Leo Juhlin's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
103 views

Does intention matter for positive reinforcement?

What makes something positive reinforcement: The intention or the outcome? I have two examples I'm trying to understand. First, if I am teaching my dog a trick and I give her a treat whenever I say &...
sklearning's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
112 views

punishment vs. negative reinforcement

I'm having trouble understanding negative reinforcement because from different POVs, it just seems like punishment My teacher gave the example of the seatbelt alarm in the car that sounds off when you ...
NFeruch - FreePalestine's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
106 views

Why is the last part (transmit) of the Feynman learning technique optional?

I read some articles about The Feynman Learning Technique but I don't know why the fourth part, transmit, is optional? From my perspective, the implementation part should be more important because the ...
Lzn's user avatar
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1 answer
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Are food rewards a good long term learning strategy?

This could be a question for parenting SE, but I am looking to understand the mechanism, so I am looking for a core answer from a psychological perspective; without all of the cultural noise that ...
DarcyThomas's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
208 views

Is pleasure synonymous to positive reinforcement?

I'm thinking about what pleasure is from the perspective of the integrated information theory of consciousness. As I understand it, according to the appraisal theory of emotions, the orientation on ...
Probably's user avatar
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0 answers
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Can positive punishment occur when dreaming?

If you dream of experiencing some behaviour involving positive punishment, can this behaviour reinforce itself in real life?
83457's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
336 views

Punishment v.s Negative Reinforcement

Consider the following scenario: Every time I do the groceries with my son he constantly asks for a packet of lollies. I find this constant asking for lollies very annoying, so I always end up ...
Steven H's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
47 views

What is a sensorimotor connection in plain English?

I have googled, but haven't found any definition simple enough that I understand. I would appreciate it if you could give me an example as well! Thanks, Jack
Jack's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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What is the fastest way to make an intermittent reinforced behavior become extinct?

Let's suppose I trained my dog to touch a button and win a prize in random sequences. Now I want to make this behavior become extinct. What is the fastest way: Not allow my dog to see the button ...
Apprentice's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
414 views

How does the brain generate answers to questions?

Firstly, I would say that this question is probably beyond current knowledge. But I would like to hear the latest theories. Given an input "Can you name as many animals as you can until I say 'stop'?...
zooby's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
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Why is conditioned taste aversion an example of classical conditioning (rather than operant)?

The internet seems to be in complete agreement that conditioned taste aversion is an example of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. My (admittedly limited) understanding of classical conditioning is ...
Andrew LaPrise's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
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How to generate the reward signal in temporal difference (TD) learning algorithm?

With reference to the TD learning algorithm proposed by Sutton and Barto which is given by the equations: $$V_i(t+1) = V_i (t)+ \beta \bigg(\lambda(t+1)+\gamma \bigg[\sum_{j}V_j(t)X_j(t+1)\bigg]-\...
biswajit's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
149 views

How does TD-learning explain trace conditioning?

I'm reading Reinforcement learning and causal models by Sam Gershman, which states that TD-learning provides an account of second-order conditioning that provides an explanation for the phenomenon ...
wcarvalho's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
363 views

Does the brain's reward system also work when the reward comes before the experience?

Here's how I understand how the brain rewarding system works, as described by behaviorism: When I eat a chocolate after learning, there's a chance that I'll connect the learning with the pleasurable ...
Probably's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Effectiveness of audio / video feedback

Hattie & Timperley (2007) mention a meta-analysis about video or audio feedback with a mean effective size of .64 (Table 2 on page 84). They state that this analysis was part of the meta-analysis ...
Stephan Kulla's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
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Mathematical models of learning [closed]

Looking for a list of the most common mathematical models of learning. In particular, I am interested in models that explain behavior such as "learning by doing" or "learning from others".
mrb's user avatar
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2 answers
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What's the relation between firing of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine dispersion in terms of neurophysiological processes?

Question: How does the firing of dopaminergic neurons affect the dispersal of dopamine? Evidence of my limited familiarity with dopaminergic neurons and motivation for asking the question: Most of ...
Alex's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
247 views

Cognitive Models of learning Working Memory usage

Recently in deep learning, there's been a surge in learning how to use memories as part of the optimisation process (i.e. LSTM's and Stacks). However, these aren't really analogous to how a cognitive ...
Seanny123's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
102 views

How do reward signals strengthen synaptic connections in the human brain?

In a vast simplification, the mid-brain sends reward signals (for example through dopaminergic neurons) that tell the rest of the brain whether it succeeded at fulfilling the needs of the organism. If ...
Lenar Hoyt's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
36 views

Reinforcement learning for combining production rules

I'm trying to create a system that learns the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. The system I'm working off of uses a production system (similar to ACT-R), but uses hard-coded production rules. I know that Neil ...
Seanny123's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
196 views

What's the optimal way to space out rewards in order to maximise motivation?

I'm working on an educational product, and we're thinking of introducing some gamified aspects to motivate students to use the product. One of these will be the concept of 'levels' - when a student ...
Taimur's user avatar
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0 answers
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Evidence for different learning applied to negative and positive feedback [duplicate]

I was consulting a friend of mine while building a cognitive model for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and he mentioned that it's important to note that people respond differently to to positive ...
Seanny123's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
465 views

What is an acquired taste?

Some foods are delicious. People love eating them, and the experience has a positive reinforcement. Thus, people will eat the food again. Some foods are instead "challenging", at least initially. For ...
Sklivvz's user avatar
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9 votes
1 answer
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Evidence that positive rewards are learnt faster than negative rewards?

Its folk psychology wisdom that its easier to reward positive behavior than punish negative behavior (e.g. any book on parenting or dog training), but is there any evidence in the cognitive science ...
zergylord's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
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How do mammals explore state spaces in reinforcement learning tasks?

Reinforcement learning is the act of learning how to preform a task given punishment and reward. A "state-space" is the space of choices in a context. When performing a reinforcement learning task, is ...
Seanny123's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
54 views

Brain areas active while learning hierarchical structure of a problem

There are multiple examples in the machine learning literature of trying to learn the hierarchical structure of a reinforcement learning problem, however have there been any papers tying this learning ...
Seanny123's user avatar
  • 8,853
12 votes
1 answer
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Why has behaviourism fallen out of favour?

The reasons for behaviourism as a philosophy and school of psychology to have fallen out of favour are well known and documented. However, when Newton's view of gravity was replaced by general ...
Arnon Weinberg's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
235 views

Evolutionary motivation for the existence of pleasure?

It seems like pleasure goes beyond needs. What is its purpose? Is it supposed to make you not do anything, because of how good you feel? Are there animals that don't feel pleasure, but only have needs ...
Jake1234's user avatar
  • 193
4 votes
0 answers
59 views

Frequency estimation in binary prediction task

In a binary prediction task, people often match choice probabilities to outcome probabilities (a phenomenon known as probability matching). However, under certain circumstances (eg, existence of a ...
Milad's user avatar
  • 141
4 votes
2 answers
98 views

How do humans learn to combine tasks?

I've been reading about hierarchical learning (a variant of reinforcement learning from what I understand) and how it is shown to allow learning of a higher-level task (the main example is assembly). ...
Seanny123's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
157 views

What evidence is there to suggest that delayed gratification is taught and learned and not genetic?

Every evening I spend considerable time and energy trying to get my kids to eat their dinner, holding off treats such as chips or dessert. My experience was that my parents did the same. I have ...
hawkeye's user avatar
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1 answer
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What causes behavioural inhibition?

There are obvious consequences that prevent people from behaving anti-socially or criminally. However there are many behaviours that are within the bounds of social norms, yet there seems to be some "...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
84 views

Is it possible to create an inhibition against some activities?

There is an unexplained psychological reason that causes one not to be able to do some random activities (for instance, not being able to eat several days because one's mouth just won't open to take ...
Keira's user avatar
  • 141
9 votes
1 answer
321 views

'Model-free' learning in humans

In reinforcement learning, there is a stark distinction between model-based and model-free learning algorithms, where model-free methods don't make use any explicit information about the dynamics of ...
zergylord's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
156 views

What salient features of a {conditioned stimulus,unconditioned stimulus} pair are represented in the lateral amygdala?

In classical conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS, e.g., a tone) is presented just before an unconditioned stimulus (UCS, e.g., a mild toe pinch) in repeated trials, such that the CS will ...
Chuck Sherrington's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
579 views

Refinements of Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning

The Rescorla-Wagner model is one of the most commonly discussed mathematical models of classical conditioning. It was wildly popular when it came out in 1972, and very successful. The same math, is ...
Artem Kaznatcheev's user avatar
19 votes
0 answers
2k views

How does goal-tracking and sign-tracking behaviour vary across species?

In Pavlonian (classical) conditioning, conditioned responses of an animal may vary. Some animals focus on the unconditioned stimulus (ie. food/location of food) while others may focus on the ...
Vielle's user avatar
  • 1,991
10 votes
1 answer
284 views

Are there any connectionist models that integrate reinforcement and fully supervised learning?

I've been working on modeling some phenomena involving real-time control in an environment with inherent rewards (specifically, playing a 'pong'-like game), and it's increasingly looking like ...
zergylord's user avatar
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