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Questions tagged [rationality]

For questions about organisms' ability to make reasoned decisions that are optimal for achieving a goal or solving a problem.

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Does there exist a correct perception about “things that are feel-based” and “things that are based on reason”?

Does there exist a correct perception about "things that are feel-based" and "things that are based on reason"? E.g. what things are accurately meant to be felt, what are to be rationalized.
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How can one get rid of a subconsciously persistent belief? [closed]

How can someone get rid of a belief that he thinks is not true, but at the same time he still suffers guilt whenever he is not acting in accord with that belief? Here's an example that I made up to ...
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1answer
82 views

How to ask in a survey for emotional vs. rational personality

In a survey I would like to find out the correlation between different factors based on the personal dimension "being more emotional vs. rational". Are there any known studies with items that could be ...
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Do laws and taboos affect personality in destructive ways?

There are some controversial laws and taboos in different societies. I will start with examples so you can better undestand what I will say and ask. Example 1. Sexual consent laws. Imagine a ...
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To what extent is it true that both too much stress and too much relaxation lead to mental shortcuts? [closed]

Sometimes rational thought seems to be bypassed in the brain for more automatic behaviour (shortcuts, instinct, intuition, heuristics): In The Willpower Instinct by Kelly McGonigal she writes that ...
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1answer
81 views

Is there a standardised questionnaire measuring tendency to think emotionally versus logically?

I want to conduct a research on the effect of emotions on decision. It is about the role of affective and cognitive processes in making a decision. I want to know if an individual relies more on ...
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0answers
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What neural mechanism is responsible for our identification with a group? [closed]

Why do we need to identify ourselves with a group? Is there naturally a hormone/neurotransmiter reward? Or is it based on more complex mechanisms like finding the "deeper" meanings of our actions?
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How to assess the rationality of real-life decisions?

I am looking for scales that measure the extent to which the process by which a person arrived at a real-life decision conformed to the principles of decision theory. I am specifically interested in ...
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2answers
431 views

The prisoner dilemma does not violate classical probability laws

To read before (following some answers or comments) My background: As a mathematician, probability theory is my field of research; please do not answer/comment just to refer to a course on ...
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2answers
108 views

Is there a term that describes the behaviour of a person which transfers personal problems to other people and tries to solve them there?

I think my question is a little tricky to express, but I observed this kind of behaviour pattern many times and want to know if it's coined in cognitive sciences. To give an example, think about an ...
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1answer
70 views

Can rationalization be objectively recognized?

In psychology and logic, rationalization or rationalisation (also known as making excuses[1]) is a defense mechanism in which controversial behaviors or feelings are justified and explained in a ...
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1answer
63 views

Why can't subjective utilities take probabilities into account?

If my understanding of expected utility theory is correct, it is rational for a decision maker to have subjective utilities for objective consequences. For example, it can be rational for a ...
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How does conscious rational internal thought gets initiated - what gives rise to it on any given day?

I'm reading a book called "The power of now" by Ekhart Tolle, and in that book he suggests that internal dialogue/monologue/planning/judging can be first observed, then disidentified with and ...
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1answer
72 views

Can we explain the tendency of investors dollar cost averaging in terms of loss aversion?

For those unfamiliar with the term Dollar cost averaging (DCA) is an investment strategy for reducing the impact of volatility on large purchases of financial assets such as equities. By ...
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2answers
415 views

What drives civilization? [closed]

Fossil record indicates humanity arose on the African Continent - in/around Gauteng. Yet the oldest civilizations on record are far afield - Ebla, Mesopotamia What drives civilization? Why is the ...
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2answers
285 views

Do people estimate combined probabilities differently to uncombined ones?

Suppose, somebody has to estimate the likelihood of one of the following events (or has to estimate which event is more likely): A coin is tossed six times and each time the result is heads. (...
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1answer
391 views

Which branch of psychology deals with decision making under stress?

Our decisions are usually based on a system of perspectives, which in turn are based on one's own set of values. However there are traumatizing situations where this system of perspectives is turned ...
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3answers
1k views

Is fear rational? [closed]

Let's suppose a big ugly monster thingy wants to eat you. While you're running away from it, you're feeling fear. Can this situation be considered one where fear would be rational?
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120 views

Causal reasoning(implicit models?) vs grammar of native language [closed]

I was reading about linguistic relativity and it struck me that there could also be differences in multilingual individuals and mono/bi-lingual individuals on how they derive/reason/create structure ...
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4answers
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What makes people easily subscribe to pseudoscientific theories?

There are many theories/disciplines that have been categorized as pseudoscience in the scientific community. The list includes many things that are regularly even quoted in media like graphology, ...
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1answer
398 views

Human behaviour in one-shot perfect information games

Background A one-shot game is one where two participants have some set of actions $\{1, ... , n\}$, they make their decision on which option to take (without knowing the decision of their partner, or ...
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2answers
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What tasks does Bayesian decision-making model poorly?

Bayesianism has been a relatively successful paradigm for modeling decision-making. However, not every psychologist is a bayesian, and there are tasks such as the Tversky & Shafir (1992) ...
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2answers
372 views

How can the success of Bayesian models be reconciled with demonstrations of heuristic and biased reasoning?

In recent years, Bayesian models of cognition have been used - with considerable success - to explain human reasoning in a variety of inferential tasks (Chater, Tenenbaum, & Yuille, 2006). These ...
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242 views

Online datasets for the disjunction effect and violations of the sure-thing principle

The disjunction effect (or violation of the sure-thing principle) is as follows: A dis­junc­tion effect occurs when peo­ple pre­fer x over y when they know that event A obtains, and they also pre­...
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2answers
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What are popular rationalist responses to Tversky & Shafir?

In the early 90s Tversky & Shafir observed several violations of rationality in human participants, in particular violation of the disjunction effect and sure-thing principle. This has lead to ...
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3answers
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What is the definition of sanity? How can I prove someone either sane or insane?

In my experience the definition of insanity is thus: Insanity: The state of being seriously mentally ill, mad, and/or irrational. Is there a proper scientific definition of this term? While ...
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4answers
511 views

How is motivation influenced by chance of reward?

Sometimes, I work on a project where there is a chance that the whole project will become irrelevant before it is finished. I have noticed that even though I believe that the risk of this happening is ...
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2answers
685 views

Do students exhibit rational behavior in determining study time?

While I teach some economics classes, I must admit to near complete ignorance on the optimization processes students undertake when studying. We often say that the "best" students are those who earn ...