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Questions tagged [psychopharmacology]

For questions about the scientific study of the effects of pharmaceutical and general drugs on perception, behavior, mood and cognition.

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Has it ever been quantified the extent to which “culture” influences specifically what kinds of research gets done?

I would like to know about a technique for showing rigorously and quantitatively the way in which certain kinds of scientific research (in psychology) never get done because of cultural reasons, for ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
59 views

Could opiate addictions be treated with esterase inhibitors?

Since heroin is a prodrug (i.e inactive) and must be metabolized into morphine by certain esterase enzymes in order to produce psychoactive effects, would some esterase inhibitors theoretically ...
Rider's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
155 views

Medical treatment for depression

Should depression be treated with excitatory or inhibitory medications? Normally I have seen inhibitory drugs being prescribed for depression, hence my question.
Brijbhushan Gupta's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
60 views

Is there good evidence that long-term stimulant usage in children has no harmful effect when stopped?

Essentially, I am looking for an RCT done on children, where they went on a stimulant drug for at least 3 years, and then stopped administering the drug. What I'm worried about is long-term lower ...
solomon alon's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
56 views

Is it believed that ketamine has less side effects compared to SSRIs?

I was told that recent research shows that ketamine is equally effective to, and not more effective than, SSRIs when used as a regular medication, for example as a nasal spray. However, is it believed ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
66 views

Why do SSRIs take multiple weeks to reach their full effect?

What is it about SSRIs that they require 2-4 weeks for their long-term effect to become present? Is this the result of small accumulations over time in some aspect of the brain? Are there other ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
90 views

Why are there substances that give positive psychological effects but become unhealthy addictions?

In a very general way, why is the brain a system that responds euphorically in response to certain stimulants yet over time that substance may be addictive and have negative health effects? What is it ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
191 views

Is there any medication which is molecularly similar to alcohol?

I have found alcohol to have beneficial and desirable effects on me, and I have been exploring the question of why alcohol is not given the same level of pharmaceutical legitimacy as other medicines ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
17 views

Are self-reported depression scores from inpatient facilities used to measure the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals?

In the United States, patients with clinical depression are somtimes hospitalized for sucidal ideation or attempted suicide. It is common practice to prevent patients from discharging themselves from ...
Samuel Muldoon's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
51 views

Caffeine modulating substances in coffee

From personal experimentation I know that caffeine affects me differently than coffee. Are there any known caffeine modulating substances found in coffee?
CuriousIndeed's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
71 views

Are there methods of evaluating the effects of psychoactive drugs that use free-form verbal reports?

If one wished to study the effects of a psychoactive drug such as LSD, what strikes me as a natural primary starting point would be to ask participants what they actually experienced. For example, ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
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45 views

What are the pharmacodynamics (Ki nM) of the monoamine neurotransmitters?

Ok, so any psychoactive drug will have different affinities for different receptor types. For instance, sertraline has an extreme affinity for the SERT and very little affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor....
JClaussFTW's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
274 views

How does the chemical structure of a drug determine potency?

I'm rather new to neuropharmacology, and I am particularly interested in why some psychotropic medications are more potent than others despite being in the same category of one another, (i.e.: ...
Firewind787's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
152 views

"Reverse Tolerance" Hypothetical

Let me use Caffeine as an example for this question, because it's a classically understood case of drug tolerance. Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist; it works by blocking the adenosine receptors in ...
CSSTUDENT's user avatar
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1 answer
20 views

What is the size limit of molecules entering the intracellular sections of a neuron?

As voltage sensitive organic dyes enter the inside of neurons and quantum dots are seeking to replace these due to their higher quantum yield, I was wondering what the seize limit is, as quantum dot ...
C-Consciousness's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
25 views

Any statistics on the likelihood of, consumption frequencies and dosages required for serotonin syndrome to occur with LSD?

This may be too obscure of a question to have sufficient, if any, statistics on it. If that's the case, any relevant information is appreciated. From what I've gathered, very high doses and/or very ...
A. Kvåle's user avatar
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0 answers
110 views

What medication would best treat buspirone induced insomnia?

The anxiolytic buspirone causes insomnia in a small minority of patients. What existent medication would theoretically (or in practice) best treat this insomnia? Buspirone from my understanding is an ...
JohnD's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
968 views

Cannot find a journal paper on a study on caffeine, even though it is registered at clinicaltrials.gov

Can somebody help me find the following study: Effects of Low Doses of Caffeine on Mood, Physiology and Mental Function, listed under trial identifier NCT00487227 on ClinicalTrials.gov. It's a very ...
CuriousIndeed's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
95 views

What is meant by "serotonergic" in "serotonergic psychedelics"

"Serotonergic psychedelics" is apparently a sub-class of psychedelics. Now, I believed that the pharmacological definition of psychedelics is that they all agonise 5HT receptors, especially ...
A. Kvåle's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
43 views

Is the oscillatory power inversely proportional to the frequency?

I'm trying to understand neuronal synchronization/desynchronization and oscillation, as well as the psychedelic state. The following sentence confused me a bit. Psilocybin reduced spontaneous ...
A. Kvåle's user avatar
  • 271
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

How do psychedelics work? [duplicate]

I realize my question is more of a pharmacological one than a neuroscientific one, but I didn't know where else to ask this question. As far as I've read, there's two components to how psychedelics ...
A. Kvåle's user avatar
  • 271
3 votes
2 answers
100 views

How to take advantage of the withdrawal symptoms of antidopaminergics?

So this may be a stupid question as I am not trained in neuroscience or psychology at all, but I had an idea about a somewhat counterintuitive approach to psychotropics and was wondering whether if it ...
pctree's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
468 views

Can anticholinergics like benztropine be used to treat Catatonia?

I found an old paper describing a case study where a catatonic patient was successfully treated with benztropine (Cogentin). However, I can't find any modern guidelines that calls for this treatment (...
D.Tan's user avatar
  • 163
4 votes
1 answer
145 views

What can happen if a human takes SB-243213?

SB-243213 acts as a selective inverse agonist for the 5-HT2C receptor. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of many 5-HT receptors which are receptors that bind serotonin, and seems to play a major role in ...
SB-243213fan's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
30 views

Applying psychoactive drugs locally

I wonder if there are approaches to apply psychoactive drugs (more) locally, e.g. by drug carriers. Usually psychoactive drugs are taken orally/enterally and thus flood the brain unspecifically: each ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
618 views

Predicting the individual effects of psychotropic drugs

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23796468/ I have searched the national library of medicine but I could not find any papers about predicting both the therapeutic and adverse effects on the ...
George Ntoulos's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
79 views

How can we eliminate the effect of psychiatric medication on neuropsychological research with schizophrenic patients?

It is delicate to conduct studies with schizophrenic patients, considering that the results may be altered by the medication factor. What strategies should be used to counteract this effect?
mxeliezer's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
63 views

Triptans and SSRIs

When talking about triptans used for migraines such as Zolimitriptan, such drugs are selective serotonin receptor agonists. SSRIs, as their function states, are Selective Serotonin Reuptake ...
Chris Rogers's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
71 views

When the DEA says a drug is X times more potent than another, what do they mean?

E.g. Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid that is 80-100 times stronger than morphine. What does that refer to? According to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potency_(pharmacology): The IUPHAR has ...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
106 views

Are there ways to accelerate the recovery from depression via novel pharmacological antidepressants?

Are there any scientists making substantial progress in the development of far more effective antidepressants? Are there any groups of people interested in developing antidepressants based on genetic ...
Daniel Mera's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
77 views

Ritalin for treating attention and lack of focus in depression

I’d like to know if there’s research about the use of ritalin for treating attention deficit in Major Depression Disorder.
brigittethecat's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
49 views

Is there any empirical support to "chemical imbalance theory" for mental illness?

Has it been proved by measurement of chemicals in the brain that psychiatric disorders have either their origin or continuance due to chemical imbalance in the brain? I saw the documentary Diagnostic &...
Siju George's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
256 views

How to test whether THC or CBD gives a mental boost?

Studies have shown significant reduction in seizures in babies to adults when taking marijuana. I would call that amazing but what does it do in improving cognitive abilities in normal people? ...
Muze's user avatar
  • 1
4 votes
1 answer
381 views

Are neural adaptation and drug tolerance to psychoactive drugs related?

Neural adaptation is "...a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus". The example given is placing your hand on the surface of a table. Eventually, you no ...
Alex S's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
229 views

Can drugs support emotional developement in personality disorders?

Some personality disorders are associated with a degree of emotional blindness or coldness with narcissistic PD being such an example. I wonder whether there are drugs that - in addition to ...
Slazer's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
559 views

Why does venlafaxine have lower incidence of sexual dysfunctions at higher doses?

Venlafaxine at low dosages strongly inhibits serotonin, at moderate dosages also norepinephrine and only high dosages it also inhibits dopamine. The ratio is the following. serotonin : ...
Slazer's user avatar
  • 191
2 votes
1 answer
61 views

Unknown unit/mL

In the book Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Clozapine. Clozapine (Clozaril) levels are trough levels determined in the morning before administration of the morning dose of medication. ...
user2925716's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
166 views

How does caffeine work as an analgesic adjuvant?

Caffeine is used an adjuvant in over-the-couner pain medication, e.g. added to paracetamol and/or aspirin. A brief look at the Wikipedia page on caffeine doesn't indicate any analgesic effect of ...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
314 views

How addictive is Heroine?

I keep hearing that "*Heroine is so addictive the very first dose is enough to get you hooked on it*". Personally, I have a hard time believing any substance could do that to you. But I could believe ...
User1291's user avatar
  • 151
3 votes
0 answers
97 views

Study purportedly proving psychedelics induce a "heightened state of consciousness"

The Guardian headlines on 28 Nov 2017: "Psychedelic drugs induce 'heightened state of consciousness', brain scans show". Healthy volunteers who received LSD, ketamine or psilocybin, a ...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
80 views

Caffeine any-dose tolerance study

Lifehacker says: A 1995 study suggests that humans become tolerant to their daily dose of caffeine—whether a single soda or a serious espresso habit—somewhere between a week and 12 days. They don'...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
357 views

Can tapering reduce the risk of sedative kindling and brain damage?

So we know that repeated withdrawal from GABAeric substances like alcohol and benzodiazepines will cause kindling and worsen future withdrawal symptoms. Also, it appears that withdrawal from alcohol ...
Daniel Grover's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
99 views

What genetic polymorphisms are linked to aggression or violence?

Anecdotally, there are reports of varenicline causing agression, but larger studies tended towards the finding of no effect over controls. This got me into thinking about possible genetic ...
faustus's user avatar
  • 1,247
2 votes
1 answer
82 views

experimental tracking and treating bipolar disorder

Is there a way to measure what neurotransmitters (and in what amount) are present in a person via blood or other method? I feel like if such information was available there could be experiments ...
isabella citarello's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
38 views

Stroke amelioration

Excessive sugar, like Pepsi, is considered harmful. However, I am wondering if it could be helpful if taken by a victim of stroke during or immediately after a stroke, or somewhat after a stroke? My ...
Richard Peterson's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
57 views

Polypharmacy involving sumatriptan, tramadol and serotoninergic antidepressants and risk of serotonin syndrome [closed]

Let us consider the following clinical vignette: A 61 y/o male presents complaining of migraines on the order of 2 or 3 times a month. When he gets them, the only thing that helps to mitigate them is ...
user18670's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
5k views

Can you get addicted from using topical or local anaesthetics to ease pain?

I've been wondering if there was such a thing as developing some kind of physical or psychological dependence on things that relieve pain. While we often hear about opioid addiction, which is ...
HeavenlyHarmony's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
48 views

Do hallucinogenics affect chronic pain?

As noted in a previous question, hallucinogenics, such as psilocybin, have been used to treat depression with some success. Chronic pain is affected somewhat by a top-down process from the brain, as ...
Seanny123's user avatar
  • 8,853
1 vote
1 answer
247 views

Are many anticonvulsants just coincidentally also psychoactive?

Many of the antiseizure I'm aware of are described as having the potential for behavior altering side-effects. I am curious about this. Is there something about the chemistry of the brain that ...
Khae's user avatar
  • 19
7 votes
1 answer
91 views

How to counteract the deterioration of speech in stutterers by targeting sympathetic arousal?

I am quoting a good overview from a Quora member about the reasons why people stutter when exposed to stress: ...The underlying physiological basis of why stress provokes stuttering has been ...
Sandra's user avatar
  • 71