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Questions tagged [psychopharmacology]

For questions about the scientific study of the effects of pharmaceutical and general drugs on perception, behavior, mood and cognition.

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Can drugs support emotional developement in personality disorders?

Some personality disorders are associated with a degree of emotional blindness or coldness with narcissistic PD being such an example. I wonder whether there are drugs that - in addition to ...
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16 views

Why does venlafaxine have lower incidence of sexual dysfunctions at higher doses?

Venlafaxine at low dosages strongly inhibits serotonin, at moderate dosages also norepinephrine and only high dosages it also inhibits dopamine. The ratio is the following. serotonin : ...
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19 views

Induced sexual dysfunctions: antipsychotics vs antidepressants

What is the difference in general between the newer AP and AD considering sexual dysfunctions. By difference I mean the order of magnitude when taking a suitable drug from the given class. Like ...
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1answer
36 views

Unknown unit/mL

In the book Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Clozapine. Clozapine (Clozaril) levels are trough levels determined in the morning before administration of the morning dose of medication. ...
3
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1answer
49 views

How does caffeine work as an analgesic adjuvant?

Caffeine is used an adjuvant in over-the-couner pain medication, e.g. added to paracetamol and/or aspirin. A brief look at the Wikipedia page on caffeine doesn't indicate any analgesic effect of ...
5
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2answers
101 views

How addictive is Heroine?

I keep hearing that "*Heroine is so addictive the very first dose is enough to get you hooked on it*". Personally, I have a hard time believing any substance could do that to you. But I could believe ...
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42 views

Study purportedly proving psychedelics induce a “heightened state of consciousness”

The Guardian headlines on 28 Nov 2017: "Psychedelic drugs induce 'heightened state of consciousness', brain scans show". Healthy volunteers who received LSD, ketamine or psilocybin, a compound ...
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31 views

Caffeine any-dose tolerance study

Lifehacker says: A 1995 study suggests that humans become tolerant to their daily dose of caffeine—whether a single soda or a serious espresso habit—somewhere between a week and 12 days. They don'...
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1answer
195 views

Sexual arousal when studying science [closed]

I'm interested in the phenomenon of people getting sexually aroused while studying science (math, physics, etc.). In particular, I've heard from a friend who's a psychologist, that it could be an ...
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69 views

Can tapering reduce the risk of sedative kindling and brain damage?

So we know that repeated withdrawal from GABAeric substances like alcohol and benzodiazepines will cause kindling and worsen future withdrawal symptoms. Also, it appears that withdrawal from alcohol ...
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1answer
48 views

What genetic polymorphisms are linked to aggression or violence?

Anecdotally, there are reports of varenicline causing agression, but larger studies tended towards the finding of no effect over controls. This got me into thinking about possible genetic ...
2
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1answer
32 views

experimental tracking and treating bipolar disorder

Is there a way to measure what neurotransmitters (and in what amount) are present in a person via blood or other method? I feel like if such information was available there could be experiments ...
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1answer
22 views

Stroke amelioration

Excessive sugar, like Pepsi, is considered harmful. However, I am wondering if it could be helpful if taken by a victim of stroke during or immediately after a stroke, or somewhat after a stroke? My ...
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22 views

Polypharmacy involving sumatriptan, tramadol and serotoninergic antidepressants and risk of serotonin syndrome [closed]

Let us consider the following clinical vignette: A 61 y/o male presents complaining of migraines on the order of 2 or 3 times a month. When he gets them, the only thing that helps to mitigate them is ...
2
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2answers
451 views

Can you get addicted from using topical or local anaesthetics to ease pain?

I've been wondering if there was such a thing as developing some kind of physical or psychological dependence on things that relieve pain. While we often hear about opioid addiction, which is ...
3
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1answer
30 views

Do hallucinogenics affect chronic pain?

As noted in a previous question, hallucinogenics, such as psilocybin, have been used to treat depression with some success. Chronic pain is affected somewhat by a top-down process from the brain, as ...
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122 views

Are many anticonvulsants just coincidentally also psychoactive?

Many of the antiseizure I'm aware of are described as having the potential for behavior altering side-effects. I am curious about this. Is there something about the chemistry of the brain that ...
7
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1answer
51 views

How to counteract the deterioration of speech in stutterers by targeting sympathetic arousal?

I am quoting a good overview from a Quora member about the reasons why people stutter when exposed to stress: ...The underlying physiological basis of why stress provokes stuttering has been ...
6
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1answer
143 views

Do antipsychotics have a delayed onset of action similar to (monoamine) antidepressants?

I've been trying to understand the position of Steve Hyman (a former NIMH director), who has been amply quoted in an recent article in Quartz, saying among ohter things that There’s not “an iota of ...
3
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2answers
498 views

Do stimulants increase the IQ tests score for everyone?

There is some meta-analytic evidence that stimulants increase the IQ test scores of ADHD children by 2 to 7 points (Jepsen et al., 2009). Although giving stimulants to non-ADHD children may be ...
4
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1answer
182 views

Is tianeptine addictive?

A recent (2014) study in cell cultures has found that tianeptine is a mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist (and [mentioning for completeness] delta opioid receptor agonist as well, albeit weaker). It's ...
2
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1answer
21 views

Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in non-Parkison's subjects?

I realize that giving L-dopa or similar drugs to people who don't need it would be unethical owing to their side effects*, but given that L-dopa is abused by some Parkinson's disease patients, are ...
3
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1answer
110 views

Can drugs cause a psychosis, or only unlock it?

There have been many reports, that recreational drug use can cause psychosis. Some cannabis users report experiencing psychosis (sometimes permanent) immediately after use. Some methamphetamine users ...
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2answers
552 views

Can drugs cause positive reinforcement for undesirable tasks?

For this example, I will use alcohol as an example drug, since it's legal and increases dopamine. Can drinking alcohol when performing unpleasant tasks, such as homework, cleaning, or laundry confuse ...
2
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1answer
563 views

LSD and tryptamines harmless or neurotoxic? [closed]

It's commonly stated by numerous people that LSD and trytamines like DMT and psilocin are physically harmless and not neurotoxic. Is there evidence for this? I recently read 5-meo-Dipt which is a ...
6
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1answer
269 views

Is it dangerous to take an antipsychotic drug irregularly?

I've read the case of Witty Ticcy Ray: a 24 years old man with disabling Tourette’s syndrome. The first Dr. Sacks's treatment, with Haldol, provokes a strong change in Ray's behavior: from tics and ...
6
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1answer
92 views

Psilocybin for treatment of anxiety disorder

Has psilocybin been used for treatment of anxiety disorder? I've mostly found it used in the treatment of anxiety in patients diagnosed with cancer (Nichols et al. 2017) and patients not diagnosed ...
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90 views

Evidence of cannabis exposure causing schizophrenia?

I've heard that cannabis exposure during teenage years increases the probability of developing schizophrenia-like symptoms later in life. What evidence is there that this is causal and not ...
3
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1answer
59 views

What is the difference between flow and cannabis induced high?

I am doing research on flow. So far I found out that flow is a short-term positive peak experience, but not a persistent state of mind. I wonder, what is the difference between flow and cannabis ...
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4answers
286 views

Why is depression a diagnosable issue?

To me, it seems strange that something such as depression, which anyone can feel at any given time, is diagnosed and treated medically as if it is a mental disorder. I believe depression should be ...
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0answers
70 views

Interaction between caffeine intake and biorhythm on alertness

Throughout the day, people's wakefulness and attentiveness varies, as modulated by one's circadian biorhythm. Whereas in the morning people are less awake, just before noon and around 15:00 people ...
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2answers
111 views

Why is Potassium(K) important to neurology & the brain?

When researching the pharmacological mechanisms of action and interactions that various psychotropic drugs, poisons, neurotoxins, etc. have on the brain: I frequently see off-hand references to the ...
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1answer
60 views

Can Prozac cause anxiety?

I know some selective serotonin inhibitors, such as Prozac, are prescribed for anxiety, but can they also cause anxiety?
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74 views

Mechanism of ketamine in treatment of depression and anxiety?

What are the mechanisms by which ketamine reduces the symptoms of depression and anxiety?
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2answers
261 views

Can LSD connect sensory regions in the brain?

How is it possible that after using LSD you can hear sounds and see colours? I have my own experience with this phenomenon. When I´m lying totally relaxed in bed and suddenly a door is closed loudly,...
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2answers
137 views

What is the effectiveness of self-prescribed marijuana for depression?

How common is it for patients diagnosed with depression to self-prescribe themselves marijuana after trying prescription anti-depressants? Is there any evidence that this self-treatment is effective ...
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2answers
53 views

How should medication for the treatment of ADHD symptoms be calibrated?

My understanding is that the treatment of ADHD symptoms with stimulant medication is a balancing act between alleviating ADHD symptoms, and not producing unwanted side effects like insomnia or anxiety....
3
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1answer
101 views

Is it possible to develop immunity to mental health drugs?

After watching The Princess Bride, I discovered this word: Mithridatism, "the practice of protecting oneself against a poison by gradually self-administering non-lethal amounts." Is it possible for ...
5
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2answers
148 views

Is there a less colloquial term for the phenomenon known as “brain zaps”?

There is an unpleasant phenomenon, colloquially known as "brain zaps". It is generally associated with withdrawal from antidepressants, but this isn't always the trigger - I sometimes have it even ...
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1answer
249 views

Why does marijuana cause anxiety?

Marijuana is getting increasingly used in medical settings. However, one of its disadvantages is anxiety. Does anyone know the reason behind the anxiety? Is it from the marijuana itself, or does it ...
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1answer
129 views

Would administering oxytocin in games of deception improve performance?

As well as facilitating parturition, the hormone oxytocin is thought to mediate "prosocial behaviour" in mammals. It’s been a while since I have read the literature, but I am aware there is robust ...
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1answer
479 views

How much sleep is needed for peak cognitive performance?

How much sleep is needed for peak cognitive performance? If some were to, for example, wake up one morning at 12:30PM, would a sleeping pill help obtain better sleep required for that performance the ...
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2answers
151 views

Can hallucinogens treat depressive states?

Given the serotonin hypothesis of depression, increasing synaptic serotonin level may cause anti-depressive effects. Hallucinogens seems to have such advantages: They improve mood at once, but not ...
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0answers
125 views

What is a short, drug-induced “blackout” experience called? [closed]

I know of anecdotal evidence for the following drug-related side-effects: It can happen while getting used to a new drug, or when quitting a drug. Probably also some other situations. The feeling ...
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3answers
225 views

Are there any circumstances where schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are not lifelong?

It is known that psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar I, and bipolar II are for life, and require long term treatment (lifelong). Is this always the case? The answer could include ...
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0answers
119 views

Influence of antidepressant drugs upon personality

How do antidepressant drugs influence someone's personality? Do they induce a major change in an individual's personality, or do they just negate the influence of depression? Basically, is the ...
12
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2answers
3k views

Can SSRI make things worse in the long term or cause delayed depression?

I found two articles that mention that taking SSRI for depression can actually make the depression worse. "Now Antidepressant-Induced Chronic Depression Has a Name: Tardive Dysphoria" on Psychology ...
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0answers
127 views

What happens inside our body, when we experience betrayal and infidelity?

I guess many of us have experienced it. The moment that you understand that "the person you love, in whom you've trusted, is now with someone else, enjoying every moment with him/her". It's so ...
3
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1answer
3k views

Can the neuronal firing rate be increased through medication/diet?

My rudimentary understanding of the neuronal firing rate is that it varies person to person, and neuron to neuron. So any specific number for a firing rate would be specific to the test subject and ...
12
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3answers
180 views

Are there any pragmatic uses of hallucinogens?

Hallucinogens (psilocybin, LSD and others) are often regarded as risky substances, therefore they are banned in most places. Are there ways of using these substances that can be beneficial? Or in ...