Questions tagged [psychopharmacology]

For questions about the scientific study of the effects of pharmaceutical and general drugs on perception, behavior, mood and cognition.

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3
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0answers
62 views

What can happen if a human takes SB-243213?

SB-243213 acts as a selective inverse agonist for the 5-HT2C receptor. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of many 5-HT receptors which are receptors that bind serotonin, and seems to play a major role in ...
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21 views

Applying psychoactive drugs locally

I wonder if there are approaches to apply psychoactive drugs (more) locally, e.g. by drug carriers. Usually psychoactive drugs are taken orally/enterally and thus flood the brain unspecifically: each ...
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Density maps of neurotransmitter systems

Are there density maps for specific neurotransmitters that I can have a look at? By density map I mean a map that indicates how the somata of X-releasing neurons are distributed how the somata of X-...
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3answers
585 views

Predicting the individual effects of psychotropic drugs

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23796468/ I have searched the national library of medicine but I could not find any papers about predicting both the therapeutic and adverse effects on the ...
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1answer
47 views

How can we eliminate the effect of psychiatric medication on neuropsychological research with schizophrenic patients?

It is delicate to conduct studies with schizophrenic patients, considering that the results may be altered by the medication factor. What strategies should be used to counteract this effect?
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1answer
41 views

Triptans and SSRIs

When talking about triptans used for migraines such as Zolimitriptan, such drugs are selective serotonin receptor agonists. SSRIs, as their function states, are Selective Serotonin Reuptake ...
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1answer
32 views

When the DEA says a drug is X times more potent than another, what do they mean?

E.g. Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid that is 80-100 times stronger than morphine. What does that refer to? According to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potency_(pharmacology): The IUPHAR has ...
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1answer
66 views

Are there ways to accelerate the recovery from depression via novel pharmacological antidepressants?

Are there any scientists making substantial progress in the development of far more effective antidepressants? Are there any groups of people interested in developing antidepressants based on genetic ...
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1answer
46 views

Ritalin for treating attention and lack of focus in depression

I’d like to know if there’s research about the use of ritalin for treating attention deficit in Major Depression Disorder.
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29 views

Is there any empirical support to “chemical imbalance theory” for mental illness?

Has it been proved by measurement of chemicals in the brain that psychiatric disorders have either their origin or continuance due to chemical imbalance in the brain? I saw the documentary Diagnostic &...
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1answer
257 views

Are neural adaptation and drug tolerance to psychoactive drugs related?

Neural adaptation is "...a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus". The example given is placing your hand on the surface of a table. Eventually, you no ...
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2answers
181 views

Can drugs support emotional developement in personality disorders?

Some personality disorders are associated with a degree of emotional blindness or coldness with narcissistic PD being such an example. I wonder whether there are drugs that - in addition to ...
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70 views

Why does venlafaxine have lower incidence of sexual dysfunctions at higher doses?

Venlafaxine at low dosages strongly inhibits serotonin, at moderate dosages also norepinephrine and only high dosages it also inhibits dopamine. The ratio is the following. serotonin : ...
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1answer
46 views

Unknown unit/mL

In the book Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Clozapine. Clozapine (Clozaril) levels are trough levels determined in the morning before administration of the morning dose of medication. ...
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1answer
123 views

How does caffeine work as an analgesic adjuvant?

Caffeine is used an adjuvant in over-the-couner pain medication, e.g. added to paracetamol and/or aspirin. A brief look at the Wikipedia page on caffeine doesn't indicate any analgesic effect of ...
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2answers
257 views

How addictive is Heroine?

I keep hearing that "*Heroine is so addictive the very first dose is enough to get you hooked on it*". Personally, I have a hard time believing any substance could do that to you. But I could believe ...
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71 views

Study purportedly proving psychedelics induce a “heightened state of consciousness”

The Guardian headlines on 28 Nov 2017: "Psychedelic drugs induce 'heightened state of consciousness', brain scans show". Healthy volunteers who received LSD, ketamine or psilocybin, a ...
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63 views

Caffeine any-dose tolerance study

Lifehacker says: A 1995 study suggests that humans become tolerant to their daily dose of caffeine—whether a single soda or a serious espresso habit—somewhere between a week and 12 days. They don'...
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1answer
452 views

Sexual arousal when studying science [closed]

I'm interested in the phenomenon of people getting sexually aroused while studying science (math, physics, etc.). In particular, I've heard from a friend who's a psychologist, that it could be an ...
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201 views

Can tapering reduce the risk of sedative kindling and brain damage?

So we know that repeated withdrawal from GABAeric substances like alcohol and benzodiazepines will cause kindling and worsen future withdrawal symptoms. Also, it appears that withdrawal from alcohol ...
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1answer
73 views

What genetic polymorphisms are linked to aggression or violence?

Anecdotally, there are reports of varenicline causing agression, but larger studies tended towards the finding of no effect over controls. This got me into thinking about possible genetic ...
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1answer
56 views

experimental tracking and treating bipolar disorder

Is there a way to measure what neurotransmitters (and in what amount) are present in a person via blood or other method? I feel like if such information was available there could be experiments ...
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1answer
29 views

Stroke amelioration

Excessive sugar, like Pepsi, is considered harmful. However, I am wondering if it could be helpful if taken by a victim of stroke during or immediately after a stroke, or somewhat after a stroke? My ...
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49 views

Polypharmacy involving sumatriptan, tramadol and serotoninergic antidepressants and risk of serotonin syndrome [closed]

Let us consider the following clinical vignette: A 61 y/o male presents complaining of migraines on the order of 2 or 3 times a month. When he gets them, the only thing that helps to mitigate them is ...
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2answers
3k views

Can you get addicted from using topical or local anaesthetics to ease pain?

I've been wondering if there was such a thing as developing some kind of physical or psychological dependence on things that relieve pain. While we often hear about opioid addiction, which is ...
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1answer
32 views

Do hallucinogenics affect chronic pain?

As noted in a previous question, hallucinogenics, such as psilocybin, have been used to treat depression with some success. Chronic pain is affected somewhat by a top-down process from the brain, as ...
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206 views

Are many anticonvulsants just coincidentally also psychoactive?

Many of the antiseizure I'm aware of are described as having the potential for behavior altering side-effects. I am curious about this. Is there something about the chemistry of the brain that ...
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1answer
70 views

How to counteract the deterioration of speech in stutterers by targeting sympathetic arousal?

I am quoting a good overview from a Quora member about the reasons why people stutter when exposed to stress: ...The underlying physiological basis of why stress provokes stuttering has been ...
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1answer
181 views

Do antipsychotics have a delayed onset of action similar to (monoamine) antidepressants?

I've been trying to understand the position of Steve Hyman (a former NIMH director), who has been amply quoted in an recent article in Quartz, saying among ohter things that There’s not “an iota of ...
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2answers
2k views

Do stimulants increase the IQ tests score for everyone?

There is some meta-analytic evidence that stimulants increase the IQ test scores of ADHD children by 2 to 7 points (Jepsen et al., 2009). Although giving stimulants to non-ADHD children may be ...
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1answer
395 views

Is tianeptine addictive?

A recent (2014) study in cell cultures has found that tianeptine is a mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist (and [mentioning for completeness] delta opioid receptor agonist as well, albeit weaker). It's ...
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1answer
27 views

Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in non-Parkison's subjects?

I realize that giving L-dopa or similar drugs to people who don't need it would be unethical owing to their side effects*, but given that L-dopa is abused by some Parkinson's disease patients, are ...
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1answer
177 views

Can drugs cause a psychosis, or only unlock it?

There have been many reports, that recreational drug use can cause psychosis. Some cannabis users report experiencing psychosis (sometimes permanent) immediately after use. Some methamphetamine users ...
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2answers
940 views

Can drugs cause positive reinforcement for undesirable tasks?

For this example, I will use alcohol as an example drug, since it's legal and increases dopamine. Can drinking alcohol when performing unpleasant tasks, such as homework, cleaning, or laundry confuse ...
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1answer
1k views

LSD and tryptamines harmless or neurotoxic? [closed]

It's commonly stated by numerous people that LSD and trytamines like DMT and psilocin are physically harmless and not neurotoxic. Is there evidence for this? I recently read 5-meo-Dipt which is a ...
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1answer
311 views

Is it dangerous to take an antipsychotic drug irregularly?

I've read the case of Witty Ticcy Ray: a 24 years old man with disabling Tourette’s syndrome. The first Dr. Sacks's treatment, with Haldol, provokes a strong change in Ray's behavior: from tics and ...
6
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1answer
131 views

Psilocybin for treatment of anxiety disorder

Has psilocybin been used for treatment of anxiety disorder? I've mostly found it used in the treatment of anxiety in patients diagnosed with cancer (Nichols et al. 2017) and patients not diagnosed ...
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0answers
108 views

Evidence of cannabis exposure causing schizophrenia?

I've heard that cannabis exposure during teenage years increases the probability of developing schizophrenia-like symptoms later in life. What evidence is there that this is causal and not ...
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1answer
72 views

What is the difference between flow and cannabis induced high?

I am doing research on flow. So far I found out that flow is a short-term positive peak experience, but not a persistent state of mind. I wonder, what is the difference between flow and cannabis ...
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4answers
419 views

Why is depression a diagnosable issue?

To me, it seems strange that something such as depression, which anyone can feel at any given time, is diagnosed and treated medically as if it is a mental disorder. I believe depression should be ...
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90 views

Interaction between caffeine intake and biorhythm on alertness

Throughout the day, people's wakefulness and attentiveness varies, as modulated by one's circadian biorhythm. Whereas in the morning people are less awake, just before noon and around 15:00 people ...
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2answers
178 views

Why is Potassium(K) important to neurology & the brain?

When researching the pharmacological mechanisms of action and interactions that various psychotropic drugs, poisons, neurotoxins, etc. have on the brain: I frequently see off-hand references to the ...
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1answer
97 views

Can Prozac cause anxiety?

I know some selective serotonin inhibitors, such as Prozac, are prescribed for anxiety, but can they also cause anxiety?
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0answers
86 views

Mechanism of ketamine in treatment of depression and anxiety?

What are the mechanisms by which ketamine reduces the symptoms of depression and anxiety?
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2answers
349 views

Can LSD connect sensory regions in the brain?

How is it possible that after using LSD you can hear sounds and see colours? I have my own experience with this phenomenon. When I´m lying totally relaxed in bed and suddenly a door is closed loudly,...
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2answers
161 views

What is the effectiveness of self-prescribed marijuana for depression?

How common is it for patients diagnosed with depression to self-prescribe themselves marijuana after trying prescription anti-depressants? Is there any evidence that this self-treatment is effective ...
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2answers
70 views

How should medication for the treatment of ADHD symptoms be calibrated?

My understanding is that the treatment of ADHD symptoms with stimulant medication is a balancing act between alleviating ADHD symptoms, and not producing unwanted side effects like insomnia or anxiety....
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1answer
134 views

Is it possible to develop immunity to mental health drugs?

After watching The Princess Bride, I discovered this word: Mithridatism, "the practice of protecting oneself against a poison by gradually self-administering non-lethal amounts." Is it possible for ...
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2answers
292 views

Is there a less colloquial term for the phenomenon known as “brain zaps”?

There is an unpleasant phenomenon, colloquially known as "brain zaps". It is generally associated with withdrawal from antidepressants, but this isn't always the trigger - I sometimes have it even ...
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1answer
325 views

Why does marijuana cause anxiety?

Marijuana is getting increasingly used in medical settings. However, one of its disadvantages is anxiety. Does anyone know the reason behind the anxiety? Is it from the marijuana itself, or does it ...