Questions tagged [neuroscience]

For questions on the structure and function of the nervous system.

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New methods of treatment of psychological trauma?

Classical methods of psychological treatment of trauma help many people,but there is always a percentage of the patients those are can’t be healed with classical methods like : Drug interventions,...
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What are some project ideas in computational neuroscience for beginners? [closed]

I am a high school senior interested in computational neuroscience (neuroscience in general). I wanted to some projects ideas regarding computational neuroscience and reinforcement learning which can ...
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How does acute tryptophan depletion work?

The literature online about this practice is very poor. The theory goes like this: A mix of amino acids that does not include tryptophan will lower the proportion of tryptophan in the bloodstream. ...
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How do sensations differ from each other? [closed]

The sensation of tough material and soft material is not the same but in both senses, sensory cells are the same. How do these two sensations differ from each other? Does this information carried like ...
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Do brain cells get replaced/repaired completely?

Okay so this is a claim that you can see made on the internet that the none of the atoms remain in your body forever. This caught my interest cause this could be used to show that consciousness is not ...
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in this attentional blink experiment why is the second letter visible when the lag is low but not when the lag is high

this image is from the book Consciousness and the Brain by Stanislas Dehaene the book describes the image as follows : The attentional blink illustrates the temporal limitations of conscious ...
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Why do antipsychotics bind to D2-like instead of D1-like receptors?

My understanding is that: The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia states that the positive symptoms are a result of excessive neurotransmission of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway. D1-like ...
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What is the "reverse-averaging" technique used in Electroencephalography (EEG)?

Im reading about the Bereitschaftspotential or Readiness-potential "discovery" and I see it was done by "reverse-averaging" the ressults of using EEG to measure certain voltage ...
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In pyramidal neurons, are there any differences (morphological or otherwise) between the basal synapses and proximal synapses on the apical tuft?

In pyramidal neurons, are there any differences (morphological or otherwise) between the basal synapses and proximal synapses on the apical tuft ? As far as I know, they both have dendritic spines, ...
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Do spinal and peripheral nerves associate with hebbian learning?

For instance, if a musician frequently makes a series of actions, neurons that are involved in such sequence should also associate inside the spine - according to "neurons that fire together wire ...
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Default mode network's function in information consolidation?

I remember seeing a lot of research about this a few years back, suggesting replaying memory's during wakeful rest might help long term memory retention, although it was inconclusive. I was wondering ...
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What's the extent of neuronal synaptic connectivity in the "average" brain (scenario given)?

Let's say we pick a lower motor neuron and start tracing that neuron (starting at the motor endplate) in a retrograde fashion. Every time we end at a neuronal body, we also trace back neurons whose ...
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Is there any method of studying drugs which collects subjective verbal reports?

I’ve been fascinated by the notion of how mental phenomenon can even be studied scientifically for a long time, given that they are not immediately available to measurement. I tried to start with a ...
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Does only the time-series data of fMRI matter or does spatial distribution of the signal values also matter?

I was denoising fMRI data using GLM and had a question regarding the “data” of fMRI in general. (For reference you can look at the “GLM” part of https://fmriprep.org/en/stable/outputs.html or https://...
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Alpha and Beta waves during BCI Training

I'm using the EPOC X EEG Headset from Emotiv. I was recording the raw EEG data while doing BCI training to "push" a cube on the EmoticBCI application. Going back to the recording after the ...
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BOLD->functional connectivity->spectral graph theory (e.g. Atasoy 2016) vs BOLD->Fourier Analysis

My read of "Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves" (Atasoy 2016) seems to be that you can model brain activity in terms of standing waves of the connectome (...
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What causes this motion illusion?

There are some questions here about various optical illusions. I stumbled upon this one and would like to find out where does it belong. Wikipedia has a page about illusory motion that mentions ...
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Default Mode Network and: hyper-connectivity, hypo-connectivity, interconnectivity and intraconnectivity

I have been reading into DMN and its relationship to psychopathology. However, in some papers I have noticed terminology that mentioned hypo-,hyper-,inter-, and intraconnectivity. While I understand ...
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Measuring spike activity with an electrode: using the principles present in galvanic cells, can one explain how current flows in the electrode system?

Thank you for reading this. In a galvanic cell setup and around each electrode in that setup, we have species that either undergo oxidation or reduction—resulting in the literal flow of electrons ...
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Prereq sciences for Neuroscience

I've been a professional software developer for 7 years and have gotten into EdTech over the last 4 years. I'm building my own EdTech apps for students, and in doing so I decided to enroll in a Master'...
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Complete digital copy of a brain: What are the main data metrics?

For the field of a theoretical scenario, future scientists map the body of an arthropod which has about 100,000 neurons and duplicate a precise copy of the animal onto SSD, including the dendrite ...
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Why are there different neurotransmitters in central nervous system?

If an effect of binding the neurotransmitter depends on the receptor type, not the neurotransmitter itself, then why don't we have just one neurotransmitter and many different receptors?
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How do anxiety disorders affect our brains on a neuro level?

I was specifically wondering about a) The effect on plasticity. Given that stress has been implicated to reduce plasticity, I assumed anxiety disorders would have a similar effect but the only paper I ...
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What are the pharmacodynamics (Ki nM) of the monoamine neurotransmitters?

Ok, so any psychoactive drug will have different affinities for different receptor types. For instance, sertraline has an extreme affinity for the SERT and very little affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor....
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1 answer
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How to calculate Fano Factor for spike train data?

I've heard this used many times but never had to do it myself. How does one calculate Fano Factor (FF) for spike train data? Let's say that you have for some neuron the spike count in a certain time ...
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What are the differences between bipolar channels and monopolar channels for EEG?

In EEG, each electrode records a biopotential which must be compared to a reference biopotential in order to obtain a channel of measurement. Two types of channels are the so-called bipolar channels ...
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Does all motivation and desire originate in the limbic system?

My current understanding is that subcortical structures in the limbic system determine what we desire, and that the prefrontal cortex is essentially an uncaring tool utilized by the limbic system to ...
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Why are synapses that are connected to co-transmitting presynaptic vesicles uniformly distributed on the postsynaptic neuron?

This paper on functional implications of co-release and co-transmission says that "Consistent with a co-transmission phenotype, cholinergic synapses are uniformly distributed on the postsynaptic ...
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How is sexual arousal different in men and women?

I was watching ASAPScience video on the Male vs Female Orgasms. At 1:45 they say that PET scans of brain show that arousal of men and women are different. How exactly are these different, as in what ...
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2 votes
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Is there any evidence that some people who claim to see auras around persons actually see them?

I have found that seeing "auras" is used for diagnosis of some neuropathologies. However, I wasn't able to find evidence that some people truly see what is colloqially known as auras. Is ...
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What is the difference between brain parcellation and brain segmentation? (question based on Freesurfer)

What is the difference between brain parcellation and brain segmentation? (question based on Freesurfer that produces parcellation volume and segmentation volume measures)
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How do humans remember information?

When conversing, I often find myself using words or conveying ideas that I wasn't aware that I knew, nor whether these words/ideas were actually relevant to the conversation. It is only after googling ...
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Is thermoception part of the sense of touch in the 5 human senses or is it a 6th separate sense?

In an answer provided by DavidCian, it is mentioned that thermoception is separate to the 5 human bodily senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste). Yet, I would have thought it would be part of ...
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What psychological indicator activates the parasympathetic nervous system after fight/flight response?

I am new to neuroscience study and read recently about the brain's ability to balance parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system to achieve homeostasis following stressful stimuli. From my ...
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How does the chemical structure of a drug determine potency?

I'm rather new to neuropharmacology, and I am particularly interested in why some psychotropic medications are more potent than others despite being in the same category of one another, (i.e.: ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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How is the memory compressed when moving from the hippocampus to the PFC?

I have recently been intrigued by memory. I found that the hippocampus stores new memories. In sleep, the newly formed memories are moved to the neocortex. I was curious about how this transition ...
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What is the purpose of having both a ground electrode and a reference electrode in EEG setups?

In almost all electroencephalography (EEG) recording setups, there are two auxiliary electrodes in addition to the ones used to record: the ground electrode and the reference electrode. I've so far ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Are centre-surround antagonism and lateral inhibition synonyms?

On Wikipedia, there is one page for centre-surround antagonism and one for lateral inhibition. They both concern the activity of a neuron being reduced by stimuli present not in the center of its ...
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5 votes
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"Reverse Tolerance" Hypothetical

Let me use Caffeine as an example for this question, because it's a classically understood case of drug tolerance. Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist; it works by blocking the adenosine receptors in ...
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Do the brains of experts show less neural activity at a task when compared to novices?

I recently came across this article, where the writer says that it is commonly assumed among researchers that the brains of experts show less neural activity than those of novices, at the task that ...
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On Hebbian learning rule's weight update

I'm trying to program a Hebbian learning rule for a simple fully connected deep neural network (DNN), which is structured as: $$z_i = W_iy_{i-1}+b_i$$ and $$y_i = g(z_i)$$ Based on Hebbian learning ...
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How do "ideas" or "concepts" appear in the brain?

I'm new to neuroscience and psychology and recently learned about Hubel & Wiesel cat experiment where "some neurons fired rapidly when presented with lines at one angle, while others ...
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how do the neurons get stronger physically? [closed]

I wanna know about the possibility of simulating the brain state physically to know about the possibility of getting an answer for (free will or random will) vs determinism in the future. so for the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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where is the second electrode in case of electrostimulation

With electrostimulation or functional electrostimulation, a response from the neuron is generated by electrical impulses. But I always read, for example, that a stimulating electrode is above position ...
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At what point do dopamine/serotonin receptors become downregulated/upregulated?

It's well known that behaviors like pornography viewing lead to dopamine receptor downregulation to compensate for the extreme stimulation. Obviously, drugs like methamphetamine would lead to an even ...
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How do the outer hair cells amplify the traveling wave?

Depending on the movement frequency, outer hair cells can stretch and contract, amplifying the amplitude of the traveling wave at the basilar membrane. How can they do this exactly? what is the point ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What are the advantages of biphasic nerve stimulation?

One can stimulate nerves or muscle cells in different ways - with single-phase or multiphase pulses, cathodic or anodic, and via surface electrodes or implanted ones. What exactly is the advantage of ...
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Deflection of the basilar membrane

The basilar membrane becomes thicker and heavier from the basal end to the apical upper end - this is why high frequencies are perceived in the lower range and low frequencies in the upper range. But ...
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6 votes
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Is there a theoretical maximum for IQ?

In "Eugenics: A Reassessment" Richard Lynn writes: The intelligence level of the population would be expected to stabilize at its theoretical maximum of around 200 after six or seven ...
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Does the brain send signals continuously to muscles during movement?

If I make one swift movement with my arm, like just raising it, is my brain continuously sending signals throughout the whole movement? Or does it just send signals one time? The latter seems to make ...
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