Questions tagged [neuroscience]

For questions on the structure and function of the nervous system.

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Free will and neuron firing

I have been reading a lot about free will and the most recent neuroscience experiments in that field. However, one way question troubles me to which I have never been able to find any study. We know ...
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What are higher-level and lower-level brain functions?

The human brain can be described as a "Russian nesting doll" in the sense that the most ancient areas of the brain responsible for lower functions are located at its centre while newer ...
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What information does the connectome actually contain?

I am not a brain scientist but the following question seems reasonable to me. Prof. Sebastian Seung has given a TED talk named "I Am My Connectome". If I understand correctly, connectome is ...
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Square root transformation of Poisson process. How Var[P(sqrt(lambda))] ~ 1/4?

I am working on Kaggle Neural data challenge. A number of spikes given a stimulus are Poisson distributed as $$Y_i \sim P(\lambda_i)$$ The mean and variance of any Poisson process is given as $$E[P(\...
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Different plasticity mechanisms in different species

Are the neural plasticity mechanisms behind learning essentially the same across different species? For instance, is STDP assumed to be a standard mechanism in almost anything with a brain, or is it ...
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Are there synapses on other neuron terminals in human brain like in Aplysia

I am referring to Eric Kandel and his experiment on Aplysia where he shows that synapses between a pair of neurons can be modulated by means of a third neuron that synapses onto the terminals of the ...
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Is an autistic person's brain different from a non-autistic one?

Are there any differences between the autistic person's brain and the non-autistic one? To be more specific, are there any differences in brain structure or brain activity, that can be used to ...
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What does the following sentence mean? I don't understand what they are referring to when they say “saturating concentrations” and “basal conditions”?

Here is the quote: "Because BH4 is not present in saturating concentrations under basal conditions, it is crucial in regulating TH activity." This is from Fundamental Neuroscience, page 121.
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Rate of Change in Neural Plasticity

I read that children brain has more neural plasticity compared to adults, with the possible explanation as appeared in this question, pertaining to synaptic changes, where if you learn something, the ...
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Types of receptors on a single synapse or neuron

I have been googling and couldn't find the answer to these questions. For a given synapse, can a post-synaptic neuron have multiple types of receptors for different neurotransmitters or is typically ...
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research based criteria domain and DSM5

Is there any major difference between the two classification systems ? and why is there no awareness as of yet about research based domain for classifying mental disorders when it for the larger part ...
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Why does sour-tasting food stimulate appetite?

Many appetizers involve vinegar, lemon, etc. Why do they increase appetites? I am looking for a neuroscience explanation.
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What is the meaning of “the inner leaflet of their lipid bilayer corresponds to the outer leaflet of the plasmalemma.”

The whole quote is, “Their lumen corresponds topologically to the outside of the cell; consequently, the inner leaflet of their lipid bilayer corresponds to the outer leaflet of the plasmalemma.” The “...
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Do stronger emotions take longer to process with dreams?

One theory of dreams is they help us process strong experiences. So I wondered whether one needs a longer sleep after some strong experiences partly to give the brain longer to complete the healing/...
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Result of local stimulation in brain

What happens when we stimulate a brain in local regions? Some possibilities: We may trigger an action without the subject's awareness of the action; We can trigger an action in a subject, but we ...
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How does the brain interpret electrical brain stimulation?

I believe I understand the natural path, in which stimuli appear and by neural plasticity our brains "learn" these stimuli. I recently learned about electrical brain stimulation and I was ...
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Does the shape of an neural soma change its function?

My question is particular focused on pyramidal neurons. Although I would like to see a comparison to other neuron types. I am saying this because I am writing a Predictive Processing Library, maybe ...
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How does spike-timing-dependent-plasticity help in learning? [closed]

As far as I understand, STDP states that a synaptic connection between two neurons is strengthened if the pre-synaptic neuron fires a little before the post-synaptic neuron and is weakened if the post-...
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What is the neurobiological basis of Spearman general factor of intelligence?

I found a brief intro to the genetic factor of human intelligence: "Biology of human intelligence" by J A Böök (1976). Also it is known that gyrus hipocampii is basis of STM which have role ...
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64 views

Neurological explanation for differences in what motivates runners?

I have noticed differences between how my friends and I are motivated with regards to exercise, and would like to better understand what is influencing this difference psychologically. Personally, ...
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How does Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) restore motor functions and non-motor functions in SCI patients

I am an engineer dealing with Brain-Computer Interface, and at the moment, in a clinical context. One area which I came across was rehabilitation for patients suffering from Spinal Cord Injuries or ...
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Do neurons have a single transmitters vesicle per synapse they have?

Do neurons have a single transmitters vesicle per synapse they have? So when they will be activated, each transmitter vesicle is going to one synapse. Or is it that neurons release some amount of ...
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In principle, could a brain be rewired to experience more pleasure and/or pain?

I'm not sure if these are two separate questions, but I'm curious: in theory, could an existing adult mind/brain be modified to perceive pleasure/pain signals more intensely than otherwise? Without ...
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The computer model of the brain

I am a computer programmer or computer engineer, and am interested in comparing the brain to a classical computer in some way. How well does this comparison hold up? This is a general introduction ...
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Do all neurons have a “job”, or are some waiting to be assigned for a novel stimuli to appear?

Do all neurons have something to do (i.e. all are activated for some known stimuli), and when a novel stimuli appear some of them change in some way so we can learn it? Or is it that we have "new&...
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How does pattern separation works?

I found an article that stated: "Researchers think neurogenesis helps the brain distinguish between two very similar objects or events, a phenomenon called pattern separation. According to one ...
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1answer
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Reaction when light is turning on and off

This question comes from a personal experience I've had over the last few days, 'experimenting' on my own. I have a light bulb in a room that is turning on and off periodically, let's say per second. ...
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1answer
55 views

How do neurons know where to send transmitters?

If a single neuron can have thousands of synapses with other neurons, how do each neuron "knows" to which further neuron to send transmitters? i.e. selectivity
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How to take advantage of the withdrawal symptoms of antidopaminergics?

So this may be a stupid question as I am not trained in neuroscience or psychology at all, but I had an idea about a somewhat counterintuitive approach to psychotropics and was wondering whether if it ...
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232 views

How are tactile pleasure and pain differentiated in the somatosensory cortex?

A recent question here asked about (mostly) how pain and pleasure are differentiated in pathways involving reward/aversion cues. But there was some confusion as to what the question really wanted to ...
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Is it true that old people loose the ability think creatively/ formulate new ideas

My friend said something about that people get older than 50 loose the ability to think creatively and formulate new ideas. There is also a saying like “stuck in his ways” and people say the “older ...
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Memory game - short or long-term memory?

There is a game where "a suitcase is packed" and you have to remember all the words or objects that are packed into the suitcase. Each participant adds a new word to the "chain of words&...
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How to handle single trial ERP (P300)

I am learning to work with EEG data in young and elderly subjects. The goal is to find differences in P300 (amplitude & latency) between both age groups during learning. I analyzed the data based ...
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Are there any ways to naturally speed up my reaction speed without any drugs?

I play a lot of video-games and did some research online and came to the conclussion that a certain set of things are linked to an above average reaction speed and an general improved cognitive ...
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Surface area in the classic Hodgkin Huxley Model

How can I vary the membrane surface in the classic HH model? I have programmed such a model and now I ask myself how I can change the surface of the compartment, so which parameters I have to increase ...
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Will smoking marijuana lightly during teens cause developmental damage to the brain?

If someone were to smoke marijuana lightly during his teens and stop abruptly in his adulthood. Would he suffer from Some type of damage to his short term memory/iq and if so can the damage be ...
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If exactly one neuron magically disappeared from my brain, would my thoughts be significantly different?

If exactly one neuron magically disappeared from my brain, would my thoughts be significantly different? One can ask an analogous question about a single neuron (and/or its synapses) being magically ...
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What provides regular neuron spikes for internal urethral sphincter to regularly reclench?

This "Scishow" video is about internal and external anal sphincters, its length is just 3:51. The speaker, Hank Green, says: The muscle that keeps things from leaking out of your body, your ...
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Is there a neurological explanation of acquired tastes?

People acquire tastes through exposure. This includes the "mere exposure effect" (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mere-exposure_effect). Also, music heard more often are more likely to sound ...
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Why is a low threshold necessary for generating an action potential?

On page 32 of "Principles of Neural Science," it sates that, "...the initial segment of the axon has the highest density of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and therefore the lowest ...
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Sleep/Dream and Logical Decisions

I discovered that sleep tends to mitigate the 'stress' that one gets by trying to deal with logical problems like work related tasks and general daily life tasks. Does sleep do this by removing the ...
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what causes an action potential to propagate exactly and why should it propagate?

Hello I am taking a neurophysiology course and learned about the action potential and that it propagates in one direction from axon hillock down along the axon. I understand that action potential is ...
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Biological Neural Network Modification to Unlearn Understandings

Lets assume that a person grows up thinking that religion X is true religion. So he builds up a profile in ones head and when notion of religion X appears the neurons that is related are fired, giving ...
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Why does the Elaboration Likelihood Model not account for truthfulness of the message?

This is a sample problem with the answer I am stuck on: Question: According to the elaboration likelihood model, which of the following does NOT predict whether a message will be persuasive? A....
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73 views

Why can’t my eyes gaze around at a constant rate?

I’ve wondered about this for quite a long time, but never thought to ask it anywhere: I’m assuming most people know what it’s like to watch a bird flying by, you can steadily concentrate as the bird ...
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What are the neurological differences between varying types of love?

It stands to reason that the biochemical cascade involved when a person experiences love, gives a feeling of well-being and drive. Studies in neuroscience have involved chemicals that are present ...
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Interpreting FURA depolarization/calcium assay

I did a depolarization experiment that compared a mock-treated cell line with a treated line. One part of the results are easy to interpret: Treatment resulted in lower 350/380 ratios along the length ...
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Brain network datasets

I am a student from Computer Science and interested in graph theory. I was looking for datasets for brain networks (structural and functional) for graph analysis. I have found brain image datasets ...
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Euphoria from oxygen deprivation

Plane & Pilot have an article saying: Altitude-chamber tests have shown that as oxygen deprivation increases, some victims experience a sense of increasing well-being, even euphoria, while they’...
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How is Pain Subjective and Different from Nociception

So pain is the sensory feeling that tells indiviual that something bad at some part of the body has happened. What I fail to understand is how is pain subjective? If we have touch receptors in the ...

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