Questions tagged [neuroscience]

For questions on the structure and function of the nervous system.

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23 views

How to calculate Fano Factor for spike train data?

I've heard this used many times but never had to do it myself. How does one calculate Fano Factor (FF) for spike train data? Let's say that you have for some neuron the spike count in a certain time ...
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1answer
485 views

What are the brain regions related to tinnitus shown in this figure?

I am interested in learning about the neural mechanisms behind tinnitus, and was wondering if someone could help me to name the parts of the brain on the image below from a site of the University ...
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1answer
37 views

What are the differences between bipolar channels and monopolar channels for EEG?

In EEG, each electrode records a biopotential which must be compared to a reference biopotential in order to obtain a channel of measurement. Two types of channels are the so-called bipolar channels ...
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2answers
220 views

Good neuroscience research blogs

In the field of AI research there are really good research blogs that regularly analyse methods and review papers. Examples that come to mind are: BAIR blog: The Berkeley AI Research blog Distill: an ...
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24 views

Does all motivation and desire originate in the limbic system?

My current understanding is that subcortical structures in the limbic system determine what we desire, and that the prefrontal cortex is essentially an uncaring tool utilized by the limbic system to ...
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1answer
19 views

Are centre-surround antagonism and lateral inhibition synonyms?

On Wikipedia, there is one page for centre-surround antagonism and one for lateral inhibition. They both concern the activity of a neuron being reduced by stimuli present not in the center of its ...
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1answer
12 views

Why are synapses that are connected to co-transmitting presynaptic vesicles uniformly distributed on the postsynaptic neuron?

This paper on functional implications of co-release and co-transmission says that "Consistent with a co-transmission phenotype, cholinergic synapses are uniformly distributed on the postsynaptic ...
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329 views

Predictive Experiments on Neuroscience of Free Will

It seems to be very interesting that we can use modern neuroscience and cognitive science research to inform us about the ages-old question of free-will vs. determinism. The standard experiment was ...
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0answers
61 views

How is sexual arousal different in men and women?

I was watching ASAPScience video on the Male vs Female Orgasms. At 1:45 they say that PET scans of brain show that arousal of men and women are different. How exactly are these different, as in what ...
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1answer
36 views

Is there any evidence that some people who claim to see auras around persons actually see them?

I have found that seeing "auras" is used for diagnosis of some neuropathologies. However, I wasn't able to find evidence that some people truly see what is colloqially known as auras. Is ...
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1answer
23 views

What is the difference between brain parcellation and brain segmentation? (question based on Freesurfer)

What is the difference between brain parcellation and brain segmentation? (question based on Freesurfer that produces parcellation volume and segmentation volume measures)
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1answer
18 views

Is there a mechanism in neurons to temporarily increase membrane resistance?

I was just learning how electrical signals travel down the neuron and learned that electrical signal flowing out through the membrane significantly hinders the voltage to move down the axon. This ...
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26 views

How do humans remember information?

When conversing, I often find myself using words or conveying ideas that I wasn't aware that I knew, nor whether these words/ideas were actually relevant to the conversation. It is only after googling ...
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1answer
31 views

Is thermoception part of the sense of touch in the 5 human senses or is it a 6th separate sense?

In an answer provided by DavidCian, it is mentioned that thermoception is separate to the 5 human bodily senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste). Yet, I would have thought it would be part of ...
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1answer
125 views

How do "ideas" or "concepts" appear in the brain?

I'm new to neuroscience and psychology and recently learned about Hubel & Wiesel cat experiment where "some neurons fired rapidly when presented with lines at one angle, while others ...
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2answers
130 views

Why is it only positive charge that gets injected into a neuron when we inject a current into it?

Learning about the basics of theoretical neuroscience from the youtube lectures from Michale Fee's introduction to neural computation course. We're considering a very simplified model of a neuron, ...
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1answer
33 views

What psychological indicator activates the parasympathetic nervous system after fight/flight response?

I am new to neuroscience study and read recently about the brain's ability to balance parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system to achieve homeostasis following stressful stimuli. From my ...
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1answer
190 views

How does the chemical structure of a drug determine potency?

I'm rather new to neuropharmacology, and I am particularly interested in why some psychotropic medications are more potent than others despite being in the same category of one another, (i.e.: ...
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134 views

Neuroplasticity and Habit Formation

I am currently reading the book The Brain that Changes Itself and I ran across a passage that explains how habits "take over a bit of the brain map." By this, I thought it meant that each ...
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1answer
81 views

What's the exact definition of a cognitive mechanism?

I've been trying to get to a specific definition of a cognitive mechanism, but googling it surprisingly didn't give me anything. The only things I've found out are : How to know if something can be ...
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2answers
88 views

"Reverse Tolerance" Hypothetical

Let me use Caffeine as an example for this question, because it's a classically understood case of drug tolerance. Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist; it works by blocking the adenosine receptors in ...
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1answer
75 views

Lunar cycles linked with mental health issues?

From what I can find... Anecdotally, my mother used to work in nursing homes for the elderly and found that around the full moon, patients slept less and were more agitated. Anecdotal evidence ...
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1answer
54 views

How is the memory compressed when moving from the hippocampus to the PFC?

I have recently been intrigued by memory. I found that the hippocampus stores new memories. In sleep, the newly formed memories are moved to the neocortex. I was curious about how this transition ...
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207 views

Is personality dominance a hypothetical construct or is it based in neurobiology?

There are several personality tests which have dominance as trait or type as result. In addition to this question: How to measure dominance and submissiveness? How are dominant types constructed in ...
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21 views

What is the purpose of having both a ground electrode and a reference electrode in EEG setups?

In almost all electroencephalography (EEG) recording setups, there are two auxiliary electrodes in addition to the ones used to record: the ground electrode and the reference electrode. I've so far ...
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1answer
83 views

What is the neuroscientific difference between learning/memorizing and understanding in the brain?

I'm trying to understand how our brains - neurons or other chemical processes work in regards to learning/ memorizing and understanding. I found a lot of "theoretical" discussions on the topic- e.g. ...
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1answer
62 views

Do neurons involved in reflex movements process information or they just transmit a signal?

According to Reflex A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which ...
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1answer
35 views

Has there been any neuroscientific study of polydactyly?

I have been reading about polydactyly and found that surgery is only necessary in certain cases. It depends on way the extra digit on the hand or foot is attached. For example, central polydactyly (...
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1answer
52 views

Which area in the brain has the highest number of synapses? [closed]

To clarify, which structural area of the brain is the most dense in neuron synapses or connections? I couldn't find any reliable link on the internet.
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1answer
115 views

Are memories stored as patterns of chemicals/emotions?

Lately, I (as someone with no experience or prior knowledge in the topic) have been thinking about...thinking. The part that intrigues me the most is memory. As a computer-y type person, I tend to ...
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1answer
42 views

Does the brain send signals continuously to muscles during movement?

If I make one swift movement with my arm, like just raising it, is my brain continuously sending signals throughout the whole movement? Or does it just send signals one time? The latter seems to make ...
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1answer
28 views

where is the second electrode in case of electrostimulation

With electrostimulation or functional electrostimulation, a response from the neuron is generated by electrical impulses. But I always read, for example, that a stimulating electrode is above position ...
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28 views

Do the brains of experts show less neural activity at a task when compared to novices?

I recently came across this article, where the writer says that it is commonly assumed among researchers that the brains of experts show less neural activity than those of novices, at the task that ...
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22 views

On Hebbian learning rule's weight update

I'm trying to program a Hebbian learning rule for a simple fully connected deep neural network (DNN), which is structured as: $$z_i = W_iy_{i-1}+b_i$$ and $$y_i = g(z_i)$$ Based on Hebbian learning ...
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1answer
62 views

Source of sensory data related to cognitive effort

How does the brain assess cognitive effort? Is there a chemical that is being created or consumed at a rate that is proportionate to the amount of effort felt? I'm mostly interested in short term ...
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36 views

how do the neurons get stronger physically? [closed]

I wanna know about the possibility of simulating the brain state physically to know about the possibility of getting an answer for (free will or random will) vs determinism in the future. so for the ...
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92 views

What are the neuroscience research findings on the importance of breaks in cognitive function and specifically learning?

When I say breaks I mean breaks between periods of the same course, breaks between two distinct courses, single days of, weekends, couple days of, few days of, longer periods of holidays of duration ...
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1answer
52 views

Does being sporty affect a person's reaction to emergency situations?

I have always been quite sporty, and I tend to remain relatively calm and composed in emergency or high stress situations. From my personal experience, people who are quite sporty and have been in ...
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1answer
72 views

How does Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) work?

There is mounting evidence that EFT, a form of therapy which combines cognitive, exposure therapy along with acupuncture point stimulation is effective - EFT for PTSD question What are the biological ...
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2answers
21 views

Why both hypokinetic and hyperkinetic changes are seen in Parkinsons?

In Parkinsons disorder the substanstia nigra pars compacta get affected and there is destruction of the dopaminergic neurons, which ultimately disturbs the direct and indirect pathways. Now we know ...
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0answers
99 views

Mechanism of ketamine in treatment of depression and anxiety?

What are the mechanisms by which ketamine reduces the symptoms of depression and anxiety? E.g. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00088699.
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793 views

What are the neurological differences between varying types of love?

It stands to reason that the biochemical cascade involved when a person experiences love, gives a feeling of well-being and drive. Studies in neuroscience have involved chemicals that are present ...
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0answers
23 views

At what point do dopamine/serotonin receptors become downregulated/upregulated?

It's well known that behaviors like pornography viewing lead to dopamine receptor downregulation to compensate for the extreme stimulation. Obviously, drugs like methamphetamine would lead to an even ...
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1answer
34 views

How do the outer hair cells amplify the traveling wave?

Depending on the movement frequency, outer hair cells can stretch and contract, amplifying the amplitude of the traveling wave at the basilar membrane. How can they do this exactly? what is the point ...
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1answer
29 views

What are the advantages of biphasic nerve stimulation?

One can stimulate nerves or muscle cells in different ways - with single-phase or multiphase pulses, cathodic or anodic, and via surface electrodes or implanted ones. What exactly is the advantage of ...
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1answer
40 views

Deflection of the basilar membrane

The basilar membrane becomes thicker and heavier from the basal end to the apical upper end - this is why high frequencies are perceived in the lower range and low frequencies in the upper range. But ...
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1answer
121 views

Is there a theoretical maximum for IQ?

In "Eugenics: A Reassessment" Richard Lynn writes: The intelligence level of the population would be expected to stabilize at its theoretical maximum of around 200 after six or seven ...
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1answer
537 views

Is there a Big Five personality assessment under an open-commercial license?

I am currently working on a project with a few students. It's an app that can test the big 5 personality test. The problem is, I am having trouble finding one that is under an open license and that we ...
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2answers
477 views

Is the split-brain, dual consciousness experiment from Rhawn Joseph valid?

I have been reading about the problem of possible dual consciousness in split brain patients and I came across this wikipedia page. In the "other experiments" section, the two last ...
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3answers
194 views

Why does journaling seem to reduce stress?

When searching methods to reduce stress and discussing my problems with people I know, it was suggested to me that I journal thoughts, that is write down what worries me elaborately on paper. I ...

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