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Questions tagged [neuroscience]

For questions on the structure and function of the nervous system.

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Neurogensis in CNS invloves apoptosis of scar cells?

Say there's neurogensis in a brain area that seems to "allow" it, like the Hipocampus, Striatum, and so forth. Does this neurogensis might be preceded in the apoptosis of scar cells, and then, in the ...
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96 views

Calculating brain-part volume percentage?

How is the approximate volume occupied by a brain component calculated? For example, how would you know the approximate brain volume percentage of both hippocampi or both parts of the striatum, or ...
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1answer
215 views

Which possible methods can be used to determine if a certain part of the brain is active?

The question goes back to this tweet: Julia‏ @JuliaHass I just learned that elephants think humans are cute the way humans think puppies are cute (the same part of the brain lights up when ...
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2answers
53 views

Does the brain's architecture change while growing up?

If we are somehow able to record and store all the neural connection in the brain of a child and also the brain of the same individual when he is old will there be difference between the two ? Is the ...
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1answer
555 views

Euphoria from oxygen deprivation

Plane & Pilot have an article saying: Altitude-chamber tests have shown that as oxygen deprivation increases, some victims experience a sense of increasing well-being, even euphoria, while they’...
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1answer
122 views

Is V1 involved in visual imagery?

It's well known that mental imagery shares the neural substrates of its respective modality, despite dissociable multivariate patterns. For example, visual imagery can be decoded across the ventral ...
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198 views

Why do people like to listen to sad songs?

Why do people like to listen to sad songs? Sadness is not a positive feeling, so people should avoid it, right? Listening to sad songs is like inflicting some pain to yourself just for pleasure. Did ...
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1answer
153 views

What does 'Mean Diffusivity' tell me about the connectivity of cortical areas?

I am reading an article about changes in thalamic volume and connections in relation to age and I understand that thalamic volume decreases with age. The authors find that mean diffusivity (MD) in ...
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82 views

Do central pattern generators control musical performance?

Are the sometimes very fast and complicated rhythmic movements and often long lasting patterns a musician performs while playing a piece of music generated by central pattern generators (in the sense ...
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1answer
47 views

Are inhibitory synapses governed by different chemicals than excitatory synapses?

If a neuron has both excitatory and inhibitory chemical synapses providing it with input, is it true in all organisms that the chemicals that cause the inhibition are distinct from those that cause ...
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1answer
77 views

What is “synaptic polarity” in a chemical synapse?

I'm reading a paper and they are discussing modelling the neural networks of an organism. One of the key things they are interested in is finding out the synaptic polarity of chemical synapses. What ...
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1answer
43 views

Representations of negated propositions

The following question is quite hypothetical, and just to get an idea. Assume any model of how positive propositions $p$ are actively (opposed to synaptically) represented in a neural network, e.g. "...
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1answer
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Does a comparable metaphor exist for cognition that exists for slow & fast twitch muscle fibers?

Skeletal muscles have slow and fast twitch fibers that differ in their rate of fatigue. Is there an analogue in the subject of cognition? For example I might be very quick at doing coding but very ...
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I am omitting some words when typing unintentionally [duplicate]

When I type mostly I omit word / words. e.g. I wanted to if it is correct -> I wanted to know if it is correct. It should background task -> It should be done in background task. etc. Because of ...
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380 views

Why our brain can't fool itself to constantly produce dopamine?

There are experiments [1] showing that our brain tries to maximize amount of dopamine. At the same time it is the brain who controls the dopamine level, because the reward system is located in the ...
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33 views

Can sport be used as a counselling tool to help one deal with negative life events?

I found studies on how leisure activities can positively affect well-being, e.g. stress reduction. My question is more specific as I want to research how participation in sport can help one deal with ...
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Do action potential thresholds vary in “capacity” significantly, and if so, does input frequency correspond to action potential thresholds?

To clarify, I'm asking if the level of stimulation / polarization required for a neuron to reach action potential / excite the neuron varies significantly from neuron to neuron- even differing in ...
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2answers
733 views

Why does handwriting change?

In New York magazine it is stated: [I]t’s strange that your handwriting changes over time; scientifically speaking, there’s no reason it should. At a certain point, you’ve learned all there is to ...
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How to cope with the problem of noise in fMRI?

The sounds and noises that a typical MRI scanner produces are problematic for several reasons: they give - annoying as they are - a strong feel of uncomfortableness to any subject or patient they are ...
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2answers
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What are the temporal limits of the auditory system?

I would like to know what the time scale is of the human ear. I mean, what is the shortest duration of a sound that a human ear can notice and what is the longest duration of a sound that a human ear ...
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1answer
118 views

What are the definitions of 'multi-channel coding' and 'opponent channel coding'?

I am looking for the definitions of Multi-channel coding Opponent-channel coding And specifically in the context of visual adaptation. I have searched for information on the web and in books, but ...
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1answer
50 views

Simultaneous extracellular recording from different distant sites (in rodents)

I wonder whether it is technically possible today to have simultaneous extracellular recording in awake rodents (e.g., mice) from different non-proximate sites (e.g., V1 and frontal cortex). I mean to ...
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1answer
73 views

are serotonin levels higher or lower in dominant vs. non-dominant primates and humans?

On page 242 of The Moral Animal, Robert Wright states that In vervet monkey societies, dominant males have more of the neurotransmitter serotonin than do their subordinates. And one study found ...
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Why do only about 20% of the people with a heart attack report a near-death experience?

It has been shown that only around 20% of people who get a cardiac arrest and revived could tell something about a near death experience (NDE). But if an NDE is considered to be something with the ...
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2answers
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How does speed listening work?

I've recently gotten into listening to podcasts. Over time, as I get accustomed to the speaker's voice, I'm able to increase the speed of the podcast to as high as 3x speed. It still feels "normal" to ...
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1answer
640 views

LSD and tryptamines harmless or neurotoxic? [closed]

It's commonly stated by numerous people that LSD and trytamines like DMT and psilocin are physically harmless and not neurotoxic. Is there evidence for this? I recently read 5-meo-Dipt which is a ...
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1answer
95 views

Conceptual representations in brain by distributed groups of neurons

It seems generally agreed upon that semantic concepts are distributedly represented by groups and groups of groups of neurons spread over the cortex. Disregarding the localizations, shapes and ...
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2answers
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Spike-timing-dependent plasticity versus Homeostatic plasticity

How can spike-timing-dependent plasticity and homeostatic plasticity both be right? If spike-timing-dependent plasticity consistently tries to strengthen connections, but homeostatic plasticity ...
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0answers
71 views

What are the names of the white matter tracts in the cortico-ventral basal ganglia circuit?

I am looking at diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. The data is clustered by regions of interest (ROIs). The clusters have locations with names, which I have listed below. Which location names ...
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1answer
271 views

Is it dangerous to take an antipsychotic drug irregularly?

I've read the case of Witty Ticcy Ray: a 24 years old man with disabling Tourette’s syndrome. The first Dr. Sacks's treatment, with Haldol, provokes a strong change in Ray's behavior: from tics and ...
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37 views

Does the wrist have more neurons than the finger? [closed]

Once upon a time, I felt an ant crawling on my hand. I couldn't feel it initially, until it reached my wrist. Then I tried to let the ant crawl on my skin; what I found was that I couldn't feel the ...
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1answer
594 views

Can brain zaps be demonstrated by EEG?

Brain zaps are explained as an electrical buzz in the head and the symptoms occur while withdrawing slowly from an SSRI antidepressant medication. Is it possible to detect brain zaps by placing EEG ...
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1answer
50 views

Does increased neural complexity slows down brain operation speeds?

If a sensory input is perceived, one needs to process this input from the sensory end organ (sensation) up to the brain (perception). Does a more more complex neural network consume more time than a ...
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1answer
93 views

The role of high-performance in neuropsychology

As far as I understand, neuropsychology gains most of its insights from the reconciliation of lesions of the brain and cognitive impairments. Normal functioning (both of the brain and the mind) plays ...
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184 views

What is the computational role of the cortical column?

The cortex is supposedly composed of semi uniform cortical columns that are interlinked. Many of the resources on cortical columns I found using a Google search do not discuss what a column computes (...
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How to differentiate attentiveness, arousal and memory via gamma oscillations

I am planning an experiment using mice with in vivo extracellular recordings (and maybe also optogenetic stimulation). In these kinds of experiments, the mouse is getting a reward after executing a (...
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1answer
430 views

What explains the characteristics of the receptive fields of simple cells in V1?

Here is a YouTube video of a Hubel & Wiesel experiment from 1965 in the visual cortex. The video shows the experimenters outlining the receptive field of a simple cell in the first part of the ...
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2answers
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Does the peripheral nervous system processes information like central neurons do?

Neural coding deals with the problem on how neurons or a network of neurons processes a stimulus and creates a response in form of electrical action potentials. Information then might be encoded in ...
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1answer
54 views

Is our sense of smell heightened when we are asleep?

My question is whether our sense of smell is stronger when we sleep? From an evolutionary perspective this could have been beneficial in terms of runaway camp fires, marauding saber tooth tigers or ...
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1answer
524 views

Psychological theories about the end of a romantic relationship

There's no doubt: many couples break and many marriages break, what happens in these cases? In the loving encounter brain areas aimed at judgment and critical analysis, are clouded by an increase of ...
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1answer
304 views

Why could too much BDNF be detrimental in terms of depression and memory?

I am interested in looking at the effects of too much BDNF and other proteins such as repressor element one silencing transcription factor (REST). Most research suggest that elevated levels are ...
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1answer
335 views

Where can I find the connectivity matrix of the connectome of C. Elegans?

I am trying to find the entire connectivity matrix for the connectome of the roundworm C. elegans. It is a much studied animal, as it features just a handful of neurons in its nervous system, 302 to ...
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2answers
71 views

Pleasure can be implicated in a chemical reaction in the brain, but does this really affect the intensity of the feeling?

It is true that many, if not all feelings of our mind like euphoria, dysphoria, pleasure, sadness et cetera are linked to a chemical reaction in our brain. This reaction is essentially what causes us ...
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1answer
74 views

What happens in my retina if I press on my eyeballs?

If I press my eyes I can "see" all kind of things: sparkling blue dots (which sometimes seem random and sometimes there seems to be a pattern in them), growing or diminishing rings of all kinds of ...
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123 views

Are all dendrites targeted by an axon, or are there a lot of “empty” dendrites?

As far as I understand, one neuron can have up to 200 000 dendrites (e.g. purkinje cells). As for axons, there can be only one per neuron, which can divide into thousands (but not hundreds of ...
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57 views

Biological Plausibility of FORCE training

In "Supervised Learning in Spiking Neural Networks with FORCE Training" by Wilten Nicola and Claudia Clopath. The authors create a learning rule for learning non-linear dynamics from populations of ...
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What's the relation between PES and LSA?

In "Learning by stimulation avoidance: A principle to control spiking neural networks dynamics" by Sinpayen et al. a learning rule called Learning by Stimulation Avoidance (LSA) is presented. ...
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1answer
93 views

Why is PES biologically plausible?

The NEF puts great emphasis on biological plausibility. However, I'm not clear on why the Prescribed Error Sensitivity (PES) learning rule, used in many NEF-based models, is considered to be ...
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1answer
149 views

Is there knowledge of the receptive field patterns of cortical columns in associative brain regions?

The retinotopic, area-based connectivity patterns of the columnar receptive fields in the visual cortex are well-established. Do any mappings of the columnar receptive field connectivity patterns ...
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1answer
1k views

How do brain zaps occur?

I've recently witnessed someone undergoing brain zaps and subsequent panic attacks after having stopped their SSRI medication and 48 hours partying with heavy boozing and no sleep. Having reviewed ...