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Questions tagged [neuroscience]

For questions on the structure and function of the nervous system.

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What exactly does paranoid mean in terms of psychoactive drugs?

When I went to my local marijuana dispensory, since recreational use of it is legal, they told me that when I first use it, I might get paranoid. When I read this word in context, I imagined somebody ...
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Is Tinnitus a result of brain damage?

It is well known that loud noises can lead to hearing problems such as temporary hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and even permanent hearing loss. But this is the first time scientists ...
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Jung's Anima and Neurological Basis in Split-Brain Patients; Left-Persona and Right-Anima

So, having skimmed some studies on split-brain patients, it makes me wonder about the whole "left-brain/right-brain" dichotomy that made its rounds in public perception some time ago. I'm not sure ...
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In TD learning, is the weight function used as a linear filter?

In the Temporal difference learning algorithm (TD-learning), an agent seeks to predict the total value of future rewards that will be received during the current trial. The agent updates the ...
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Can you get addicted from using topical or local anaesthetics to ease pain?

I've been wondering if there was such a thing as developing some kind of physical or psychological dependence on things that relieve pain. While we often hear about opioid addiction, which is ...
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Are there any practical implications for the purported neuroprotective effects of lamotrigine?

Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug used to treat seizures. Off-label, it is used to treat a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Judging from Google Scholar, lamotrigine continues to ...
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Due to Gestalt Psychology, is the face an illusion?

Gestalt Psychology maintains that we perceive a whole from parts, and that we fill in missing gaps. The "whole" we perceive is more than the sum of parts we perceive - it also involves what our minds ...
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What is an explaination for the light-headed and slow-motion feeling after a long hard mental exam?

Question After taking a long final exam, people often report feeling like the world is moving in slow motion. I've heard this exam effect jokingly called "zombie feeling" or "brain-fog". I describe ...
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Why are there few studies in the literature regarding human's pheromones?

Pheromones are thought to be the biological underpinning of the social behaviour. They have been extensively studied in animals. Pheromones are chemical factors that trigger a social response in ...
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114 views

Is it true that old people loose the ability think creatively/ formulate new ideas

My friend said something about that people get older than 50 loose the ability to think creatively and formulate new ideas. There is also a saying like “stuck in his ways” and people say the “older ...
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273 views

Can you give an example of automatic appraisal process?

I was reading this slide provided by my prof. of Affective Neuroscience. I've read that appraisal is considered a constitutive component of emotion by most of the actual theories. Appraisal is defined ...
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238 views

Do men, on average, have a higher general intelligence score?

I'm aware of this study that was linked during an argument: "Sex differences in brain size and general intelligence (g)" and this question Gender differences in IQ among undergraduate psychology ...
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Why does a higher post-synaptic cell resistance lead to a higher voltage change when current is applied?

In the "Principles of Neural Science" 5th edition in the discussion about electrical synapses it says: During excitatory synaptic transmission at an electrical synapse, voltage-gated ion channels ...
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140 views

Why are empty spaces around hippocampus and striatum not filled with astrocytes?

I understand that, generally, when a neuron dies, the vacated, empty space will form a scar in the form of an astrocyte. Basically, the astrocyte thus replaces that neuron. Why then are there empty ...
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1answer
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What is the frequency range of electrotactile stimulation?

I have been trying to find out what the (human) electrotactile frequency range is. Since this is a much more experimental method (and more unpleasant) than the traditional vibrotactile method, the ...
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192 views

Why is Biological plausibility in Machine Learning important?

I have found that many authors of machine learning papers, that employ the Hebbian learning rule, refer to the biological plausibility of it, as one of the arguments to use it instead of the well ...
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Neural field application question

I am following a class where we have just learned about so-called neural fields (the prof called them recurrent neural networks and said they are used to model large populations of real neurons). Now ...
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Task-based vs task-positive networks

Do the terms "task-positive network" and "task-based network" refer to the same thing, such as the Fronto-Parietal Control Network (FPCN), as distinct from the task-negative networks such as the ...
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673 views

Is this brain map scientifically correct?

I'm not an expert in neuroscience but always read about information that seems conflicting to me. On one side I hear that the idea of single brain functions localized in specific brain areas is ...
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148 views

Do antipsychotics have a delayed onset of action similar to (monoamine) antidepressants?

I've been trying to understand the position of Steve Hyman (a former NIMH director), who has been amply quoted in an recent article in Quartz, saying among ohter things that There’s not “an iota of ...
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1answer
218 views

How exactly does transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) work?

The method of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) involves the flow of electric charge from a positive electrode to a negative one. This method is not exactly a stimulation method because ...
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Neurogensis in CNS invloves apoptosis of scar cells?

Say there's neurogensis in a brain area that seems to "allow" it, like the Hipocampus, Striatum, and so forth. Does this neurogensis might be preceded in the apoptosis of scar cells, and then, in the ...
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103 views

Calculating brain-part volume percentage?

How is the approximate volume occupied by a brain component calculated? For example, how would you know the approximate brain volume percentage of both hippocampi or both parts of the striatum, or ...
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1answer
218 views

Which possible methods can be used to determine if a certain part of the brain is active?

The question goes back to this tweet: Julia‏ @JuliaHass I just learned that elephants think humans are cute the way humans think puppies are cute (the same part of the brain lights up when ...
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2answers
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Does the brain's architecture change while growing up?

If we are somehow able to record and store all the neural connection in the brain of a child and also the brain of the same individual when he is old will there be difference between the two ? Is the ...
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1answer
652 views

Euphoria from oxygen deprivation

Plane & Pilot have an article saying: Altitude-chamber tests have shown that as oxygen deprivation increases, some victims experience a sense of increasing well-being, even euphoria, while they’...
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Is V1 involved in visual imagery?

It's well known that mental imagery shares the neural substrates of its respective modality, despite dissociable multivariate patterns. For example, visual imagery can be decoded across the ventral ...
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Why do people like to listen to sad songs?

Why do people like to listen to sad songs? Sadness is not a positive feeling, so people should avoid it, right? Listening to sad songs is like inflicting some pain to yourself just for pleasure. Did ...
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1answer
208 views

What does 'Mean Diffusivity' tell me about the connectivity of cortical areas?

I am reading an article about changes in thalamic volume and connections in relation to age and I understand that thalamic volume decreases with age. The authors find that mean diffusivity (MD) in ...
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140 views

Do central pattern generators control musical performance?

Are the sometimes very fast and complicated rhythmic movements and often long lasting patterns a musician performs while playing a piece of music generated by central pattern generators (in the sense ...
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1answer
49 views

Are inhibitory synapses governed by different chemicals than excitatory synapses?

If a neuron has both excitatory and inhibitory chemical synapses providing it with input, is it true in all organisms that the chemicals that cause the inhibition are distinct from those that cause ...
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1answer
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What is “synaptic polarity” in a chemical synapse?

I'm reading a paper and they are discussing modelling the neural networks of an organism. One of the key things they are interested in is finding out the synaptic polarity of chemical synapses. What ...
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1answer
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Representations of negated propositions

The following question is quite hypothetical, and just to get an idea. Assume any model of how positive propositions $p$ are actively (opposed to synaptically) represented in a neural network, e.g. "...
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Does a comparable metaphor exist for cognition that exists for slow & fast twitch muscle fibers?

Skeletal muscles have slow and fast twitch fibers that differ in their rate of fatigue. Is there an analogue in the subject of cognition? For example I might be very quick at doing coding but very ...
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I am omitting some words when typing unintentionally [duplicate]

When I type mostly I omit word / words. e.g. I wanted to if it is correct -> I wanted to know if it is correct. It should background task -> It should be done in background task. etc. Because of ...
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431 views

Why our brain can't fool itself to constantly produce dopamine?

There are experiments [1] showing that our brain tries to maximize amount of dopamine. At the same time it is the brain who controls the dopamine level, because the reward system is located in the ...
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Can sport be used as a counselling tool to help one deal with negative life events?

I found studies on how leisure activities can positively affect well-being, e.g. stress reduction. My question is more specific as I want to research how participation in sport can help one deal with ...
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Do action potential thresholds vary in “capacity” significantly, and if so, does input frequency correspond to action potential thresholds?

To clarify, I'm asking if the level of stimulation / polarization required for a neuron to reach action potential / excite the neuron varies significantly from neuron to neuron- even differing in ...
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Why does handwriting change?

In New York magazine it is stated: [I]t’s strange that your handwriting changes over time; scientifically speaking, there’s no reason it should. At a certain point, you’ve learned all there is to ...
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How to cope with the problem of noise in fMRI?

The sounds and noises that a typical MRI scanner produces are problematic for several reasons: they give - annoying as they are - a strong feel of uncomfortableness to any subject or patient they are ...
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What are the temporal limits of the auditory system?

I would like to know what the time scale is of the human ear. I mean, what is the shortest duration of a sound that a human ear can notice and what is the longest duration of a sound that a human ear ...
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1answer
140 views

What are the definitions of 'multi-channel coding' and 'opponent channel coding'?

I am looking for the definitions of Multi-channel coding Opponent-channel coding And specifically in the context of visual adaptation. I have searched for information on the web and in books, but ...
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1answer
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Simultaneous extracellular recording from different distant sites (in rodents)

I wonder whether it is technically possible today to have simultaneous extracellular recording in awake rodents (e.g., mice) from different non-proximate sites (e.g., V1 and frontal cortex). I mean to ...
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1answer
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are serotonin levels higher or lower in dominant vs. non-dominant primates and humans?

On page 242 of The Moral Animal, Robert Wright states that In vervet monkey societies, dominant males have more of the neurotransmitter serotonin than do their subordinates. And one study found ...
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Why do only about 20% of the people with a heart attack report a near-death experience?

It has been shown that only around 20% of people who get a cardiac arrest and revived could tell something about a near death experience (NDE). But if an NDE is considered to be something with the ...
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How does speed listening work?

I've recently gotten into listening to podcasts. Over time, as I get accustomed to the speaker's voice, I'm able to increase the speed of the podcast to as high as 3x speed. It still feels "normal" to ...
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1answer
793 views

LSD and tryptamines harmless or neurotoxic? [closed]

It's commonly stated by numerous people that LSD and trytamines like DMT and psilocin are physically harmless and not neurotoxic. Is there evidence for this? I recently read 5-meo-Dipt which is a ...
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Conceptual representations in brain by distributed groups of neurons

It seems generally agreed upon that semantic concepts are distributedly represented by groups and groups of groups of neurons spread over the cortex. Disregarding the localizations, shapes and ...
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Spike-timing-dependent plasticity versus Homeostatic plasticity

How can spike-timing-dependent plasticity and homeostatic plasticity both be right? If spike-timing-dependent plasticity consistently tries to strengthen connections, but homeostatic plasticity ...
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What are the names of the white matter tracts in the cortico-ventral basal ganglia circuit?

I am looking at diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. The data is clustered by regions of interest (ROIs). The clusters have locations with names, which I have listed below. Which location names ...