Questions tagged [neuroscience]

For questions on the structure and function of the nervous system.

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Ritalin/Concerta/Methylphenidate is an amphetamine? [closed]

FIDE says here: The most relevant banned substances for chess are: • Amphetamines – e.g. Adderall, Ritalin (...) Image: I think either Ritalin should be in a separate category called ...
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Do the brains of experts show less neural activity at a task when compared to novices?

I recently came across this article, where the writer says that it is commonly assumed among researchers that the brains of experts show less neural activity than those of novices, at the task that ...
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On Hebbian learning rule's weight update

I'm trying to program a Hebbian learning rule for a simple fully connected deep neural network (DNN), which is structured as: $$z_i = W_iy_{i-1}+b_i$$ and $$y_i = g(z_i)$$ Based on Hebbian learning ...
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How are "ideas" or "concepts" appear in the brain?

I'm new to neuroscience and psychology and recently learned about Hubel & Wiesel cat experiment where "some neurons fired rapidly when presented with lines at one angle, while others ...
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how do the neurons get stronger physically? [closed]

I wanna know about the possibility of simulating the brain state physically to know about the possibility of getting an answer for (free will or random will) vs determinism in the future. so for the ...
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1answer
28 views

where is the second electrode in case of electrostimulation

With electrostimulation or functional electrostimulation, a response from the neuron is generated by electrical impulses. But I always read, for example, that a stimulating electrode is above position ...
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At what point do dopamine/serotonin receptors become downregulated/upregulated?

It's well known that behaviors like pornography viewing lead to dopamine receptor downregulation to compensate for the extreme stimulation. Obviously, drugs like methamphetamine would lead to an even ...
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1answer
31 views

How do the outer hair cells amplify the traveling wave?

Depending on the movement frequency, outer hair cells can stretch and contract, amplifying the amplitude of the traveling wave at the basilar membrane. How can they do this exactly? what is the point ...
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1answer
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What are the advantages of biphasic nerve stimulation?

One can stimulate nerves or muscle cells in different ways - with single-phase or multiphase pulses, cathodic or anodic, and via surface electrodes or implanted ones. What exactly is the advantage of ...
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Deflection of the basilar membrane

The basilar membrane becomes thicker and heavier from the basal end to the apical upper end - this is why high frequencies are perceived in the lower range and low frequencies in the upper range. But ...
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1answer
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Is there a theoretical maximum for IQ?

In "Eugenics: A Reassessment" Richard Lynn writes: The intelligence level of the population would be expected to stabilize at its theoretical maximum of around 200 after six or seven ...
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Does the brain send signals continuously to muscles during movement?

If I make one swift movement with my arm, like just raising it, is my brain continuously sending signals throughout the whole movement? Or does it just send signals one time? The latter seems to make ...
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Do induced brain wave patterns give the same cognitive and perceptual consequences as those that arise naturally? [duplicate]

What I mean to ask by this particular question is that, are the effects resulting from neural interactions in the brain that cause the emergence of certain behaviours, with the neural frequencies in ...
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Does the increase (i.e. more positive) of an equilibrium potential always cause the membrane potential to increase (i.e. the cell depolarizes)?

I am a little bit confused. I know that for potassium, when less ions are going down the concentration gradient, Ek increases and the neuron becomes depolarized. However, I am also aware that if Ena ...
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39 views

What are the values of the absolute intracellular and absolute extracellular potentials in a neuron?

Most texts on neurons give the value of the membrane potential and do not state the absolute values of the intracellular and extracellular potentials in a neuron. I understand that this is because the ...
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1answer
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What is the meanning of an x-expressing neuron, with x = some protein?

I'm studying a neuroscientific paper, and in it the authors state that "defensive behaviors are mediated by a BLA population of magnocellular R-spondin 2-expressing (RSPO2⁺) neurons". I know ...
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What part of the brain is different when you have a really good memory?

I wanted to know how the brain of someone with a great memory differs from that of an average memory. This memory does not have to be eidetic, or highly superior autographical or even hyperthymesia. ...
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What is meant by the so often heard phrase that we only use 12% of the brain?

I have heard it so often that we use only 12% of our brain. I truly don't understand this. All neurons in the brain are are firing within a small amount of time. Even in my sleep this is going on. ...
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What's the exact definition of a cognitive mechanism?

I've been trying to get to a specific definition of a cognitive mechanism, but googling it surprisingly didn't give me anything. The only things I've found out are : How to know if something can be ...
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Difference in neural activity of a thought vs. a memory

I want to understand the difference in neural activity between a "thought" and a "memory impression". Is it a "thought" while the neural activity is present in working ...
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1answer
107 views

What is the difference between the processing of visual information and auditory information?

We can read: The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe of the brain and is primarily responsible for interpreting and processing visual information received from the eyes. The amount of ...
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2answers
108 views

Why is it only positive charge that gets injected into a neuron when we inject a current into it?

Learning about the basics of theoretical neuroscience from the youtube lectures from Michale Fee's introduction to neural computation course. We're considering a very simplified model of a neuron, ...
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52 views

How is the brain divided in parts?

Now I can imagine the body being separated in parts. There is the liver, the bones, the skin, the eyes, the kidneys, the feet, the legs, or the brain. All these sub-units work together coherently and ...
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1answer
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What is the cochlear frequency response by number of hair cells?

I am trying to recreate the cochlea/basilar membrane response to sound and want to know how the hair cells are bucketed or binned by frequency, so an ideal list would be something like 10 kHz - 12 kHz:...
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Does the sensation of pain arise in the brain? [duplicate]

I can feel pain in my arm or in my brain. I have read that you can feel a phantom pain. As if the pain exists outside the body. There is a related process in the brain but the feeling itself seems to ...
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From a neuroscientific point of view does internet gaming disorder have the same effect on the brain as porn addiction?

Wang, et al. (2015) proved that among people with internet gaming disorder GMV (Gray Matter Volume) of the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), precuneus, supplementary motor area (SMA), ...
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Lunar cycles linked with mental health issues?

From what I can find... Anecdotally, my mother used to work in nursing homes for the elderly and found that around the full moon, patients slept less and were more agitated. Anecdotal evidence ...
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1answer
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Are there equivalent calcium imaging molecules that fluoresce in the presence of neurotransmitters between axons?

Molecules like GCaMP fluoresce when calcium ions attach to them. I was wondering if this can work with the other neurotransmitters in the brain or compounds that transmit signals outside of neurons.
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How close are fluorescent dyes to individual neurons in two photon microscopy?

Considering the minute electrical excitation produced by neural cells needed to excite fluorescent dyes, how close are they to these cells, considering that being too close will disrupt cell processes....
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1answer
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What is the actual interpretation of the "correlation of a connection between neurons"?

I am student of Mathematics who is currently studying the utility of Algebraic Topology in the field of Neuroscience. In the paper I am reading (Reimann et al 2017) the authors explain that for ...
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What is the neurobiological mechanism behind masochism?

I tried to search in textbooks and papers but barely found any concrete answer to which exact mechanism is behind non-intuitive transition from pain to pleasure. Does it have something to do with: ...
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How much credence can you give to human cognitive studies using mice?

This question is concerning the question, How does the brain’s visual memory work? and the Neuroscience News (2020) article linked in an answer, talking about false memories. I have discussed false ...
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1answer
63 views

Neurologically, how does a thought terminate?

What prevents my brain from holding the same thought forever, like a frozen computer? How do neurons terminate a firing pattern and move onto the next?
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Do people with sociopathy, neuroticism need medical attention?

Do people with sociopathy, neuroticism need medical attention? I thought people with dark traits don't need medication unless it causes them to have problem functioning in society like working with ...
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1answer
52 views

Does being sporty affect a person's reaction to emergency situations?

I have always been quite sporty, and I tend to remain relatively calm and composed in emergency or high stress situations. From my personal experience, people who are quite sporty and have been in ...
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1answer
48 views

What scientific evidence is there for the definable real world quality of redness independent our perception?

'With light poise and counter-poise, Nature oscillates within prescribed limits. Yet thus all arise the varieties and conditions of the phenomena which are present to us in space and time.' - Goethe ...
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1answer
89 views

What comes first? Thought or electric activity?

Our thoughts are basically the result of the electro chemical activity which are happening in our neurons. The signals sent by different neurons to each other back and forth create a pattern which we ...
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What is the role of dendrites in neural computation?

I read this article: https://news.mit.edu/2019/neurons-dendrite-role-computation-0606 My question is about this: “One hypothesis is that dendritic activity will actually sharpen up for representing ...
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1answer
57 views

Does nostalgia contribute to overrating past experiences?

We all have something in our lives that we are sentimental about, and even a glimpse of that object/idea can bring back happy memories. And nostalgia makes the remembrances of those experiences feel ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to get good hallucination while suffering from schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia : A disorder that affects a person's ability to think, feel and behave clearly. The exact cause of schizophrenia isn't known, but a combination of genetics, environment and altered brain ...
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1answer
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Is there a mechanism in neurons to temporarily increase membrane resistance?

I was just learning how electrical signals travel down the neuron and learned that electrical signal flowing out through the membrane significantly hinders the voltage to move down the axon. This ...
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1answer
56 views

What is "required reading" in training that describe mechanisms behind learning?

I've previously studied spiking neural networks in the context of machine learning applications and I'm interested in gaining a better understanding of the biology of the brain. My goal is to ...
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32 views

How does the neuron recover from hyperpolarizationn?

Assume we're at the state where the potassium gates have closed. Inside the membrane should still be more negative relative to its resting potential. This source claims that the sodium-potassium pump ...
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Can we over sensitise people

Is there evidence that "over sensitivising" an indvidual (eg adolescent) makes them less resilient? So to explain, if we ask an individual repeatedly how they feel and if they have been ...
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Question about nest cell

I'm reading the PNAS paper Neural encoding of the concept of nest in the mouse brain by Lin et al. 2007 A certain 'nest cell' is described in the paper that fires only when the mouse approaches its ...
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Can some stimulants take the place of others?

I learned in class recently that neuroreceptors can cause different chemical changes in the brain and nervous system. I was told that stimulants increase heart rate and awareness, which got me ...
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Neuroscience & Epistemology - Feedback in Hermeneutic circle of Theory and Experiment

How good is neuroscience at closing this Hermeneutic circle in the Philosophy of science? I am referring to the interplay of theory and experiment. This is depicted in the following figure: ...
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Is there a formal definition for "axon terminal field"?

I would be interested in a formal definition for this term, or at least a paper which describes this notion explicitly (instead of just using the term). Many papers seem to use it, but I haven't ...
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1answer
33 views

Endogenous Neural Activity

Could someone explain to me what exactly is endogenous neural activity? I am reading a lot of research papers, and I want to understand things thoroughly. Thanks for the response in advance. This is ...
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Can the administration of self-report measures of craving prompt participants with addiction to experience craving during the experiment?

My research focuses on measuring the neural correlates (through resting-state EEG) pre-post an improvisational music therapy session (MT sessions) in clients with substance misuse. One of my variable ...

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