Questions tagged [neuroscience]

For questions on the structure and function of the nervous system.

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Does Nostalgia help in overrating past experiences?

We all have something in our lives that we are sentimental about, and even a glimpse of that object/idea can bring back happy memories. And nostalgia makes the remembrances of those experiences feel ...
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Is it possible to get good hallucination while suffering from schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia : A disorder that affects a person's ability to think, feel and behave clearly. The exact cause of schizophrenia isn't known, but a combination of genetics, environment and altered brain ...
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Is there a mechanism in neurons to temporarily increase membrane resistance?

I was just learning how electrical signals travel down the neuron and learned that electrical signal flowing out through the membrane significantly hinders the voltage to move down the axon. This ...
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What is “required reading” in training that describe mechanisms behind learning?

I've previously studied spiking neural networks in the context of machine learning applications and I'm interested in gaining a better understanding of the biology of the brain. My goal is to ...
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How does the neuron recover from hyperpolarizationn?

Assume we're at the state where the potassium gates have closed. Inside the membrane should still be more negative relative to its resting potential. This source claims that the sodium-potassium pump ...
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Can we over sensitise people

Is there evidence that "over sensitivising" an indvidual (eg adolescent) makes them less resilient? So to explain, if we ask an individual repeatedly how they feel and if they have been ...
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Question about nest cell

I'm reading the PNAS paper Neural encoding of the concept of nest in the mouse brain by Lin et al. 2007 A certain 'nest cell' is described in the paper that fires only when the mouse approaches its ...
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Can some stimulants take the place of others?

I learned in class recently that neuroreceptors can cause different chemical changes in the brain and nervous system. I was told that stimulants increase heart rate and awareness, which got me ...
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Neuroscience & Epistemology - Feedback in Hermeneutic circle of Theory and Experiment

How good is neuroscience at closing this Hermeneutic circle in the Philosophy of science? I am referring to the interplay of theory and experiment. This is depicted in the following figure: ...
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Is there a formal definition for “axon terminal field”?

I would be interested in a formal definition for this term, or at least a paper which describes this notion explicitly (instead of just using the term). Many papers seem to use it, but I haven't ...
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Endogenous Neural Activity

Could someone explain to me what exactly is endogenous neural activity? I am reading a lot of research papers, and I want to understand things thoroughly. Thanks for the response in advance. This is ...
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Is the stereotype of violent lawless alpha male macho criminal thugs being stupid dumb uneducated lazy idiots really true?

Poker has been said to make you a genius in STEM fields like Math, Science, Problem Solving, and Logic due to Poker having a basis on Probability, Game Theory, and Psychology. Does this mean that ...
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Can the administration of self-report measures of craving prompt participants with addiction to experience craving during the experiment?

My research focuses on measuring the neural correlates (through resting-state EEG) pre-post an improvisational music therapy session (MT sessions) in clients with substance misuse. One of my variable ...
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Is the GMC (ganglion mother cell) in Drosphila the same thing as the basal daughter cell? Does a highly active Notch pathway obstruct cell division?

"Numb acts as a negative regulator of the Notch pathway (discussed above), which keeps Notch pathway activity low in the GMC. Low Notch activity causes the de-repression of proneural genes, as ...
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What's the relation between distorted(REM) sleep and creativity?

I was recently listening to Huberman's podcast where he said that disturbed REM sleep causes people to make odd connections and I was wondering if there is any relation between distorted REM sleep and ...
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Funiculus vs. fasciculus vs. nerve

After reading through a bunch of sources, I'm quite confused as to these three terms. Wikipedia suggests that a funiculus is a bundle of axons, and a fasciculus can contain multiple funiculi. On the ...
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Why does journaling seem to reduce stress?

When searching methods to reduce stress and discussing my problems with people I know, it was suggested to me that I journal thoughts, that is write down what worries me elaborately on paper. I ...
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Why is inward electrical current negative?

I don't really understand, why the inward current (for example, during depolarization the flow of Na+ inside the cell) is negative? In the textbooks, it is always depicted with minus values (see ...
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What is the difference between recurrent and feedback synapses?

In the paper proposing recurrent convolutional neural networks (RCNN), "Recurrent Convolutional Neural Network for Object Recognition", it is stated that "recurrent synapses typically ...
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Is there a benefit for humans to lose memory access when under elongated periods of stress?

Long term anxiety causes memory loss. Sources: https://www.calmclinic.com/anxiety/signs/memory-loss and https://now.uiowa.edu/2014/06/stress-hormone-linked-short-term-memory-loss-we-age Are there ...
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What is meant by “serotonergic” in “serotonergic psychedelics”

"Serotonergic psychedelics" is apparently a sub-class of psychedelics. Now, I believed that the pharmacological definition of psychedelics is that they all agonise 5HT receptors, especially ...
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How does loneliness impair intelligence?

With the appearance of covid-19 and the measures that many governments have took to decrease the infection rates of their governing populations loneliness has become more common. I myself find it ...
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Why both hypokinetic and hyperkinetic changes are seen in Parkinsons?

In Parkinsons disorder the substanstia nigra pars compacta get affected and there is destruction of the dopaminergic neurons, which ultimately disturbs the direct and indirect pathways. Now we know ...
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What is the permanent effect of sleep-deprivation on the brain and its cognitive function?

I know that many teenagers suffer from chronic sleep-deprivation. This varies from country to country, but it is widely known that especially students suffer from this condition. Most have a mild form ...
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Structure of synapse

When we study the structure of the chemical synapse, by default we come across Axo-dendritic synapse consisting of various cell adhesion molecules/receptors etc. (like this). However, I was ...
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Measuring postsynaptic potential vs action potential at axon hillock?

I have been reading literature regarding Neuronal potential measurement. Conventionally, researchers use electrode-based method to measure action potential. However, as it's of high invasiveness and ...
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Using Vagus Nerve Stimulation to treat Depression

I came across an article written recently concerning the use of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) to treat difficult-to-treat depression (DTD) and other mood disorders (Sackeim, et al. 2020). However, ...
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Neuroscience of dreaming and thinking

When we dream while sleeping, our brain is still buzzing with neural activity. My question is, while my whole body sleeps and rest, what changes take place in cellular activity throughout my body? ...
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How to determine nerve conduction velocity?

Can anyone suggest good sources or papers to understand about experimental setup and procedure for measuring nerve conduction velocity for various types of neurons? I wish to learn how such ...
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Are there “place cells” for temporal encoding?

First of all, I have to say I am not a neuroscientist but I like to learn about neuroscience. I understand there are sets of neurons called "place cells" and "grid cells" which ...
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Losing self-control during drug rehab

Is there any research or theories which can prove that exercising too much self control can lead to losing one's self-control regardless the work or activity a person engages into? From an article in ...
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Neural oscillations and activity patterns

Both single neurons and groups of neurons can generate oscillatory activity spontaneously. In addition, they may show oscillatory responses to perceptual input or motor output. Even memory and ...
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The “Triune brain” model is obsolete, what is the name of the model that replaces it?

The Triune brain model suggests our brains evolved adding more layers, a lizard brain, then a mammal brain, then a new human brain. As that's false, and the same structures have become modified in ...
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Free will and neuron firing

I have been reading a lot about free will and the most recent neuroscience experiments in that field. However, one way question troubles me to which I have never been able to find any study. We know ...
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What are higher-level and lower-level brain functions?

The human brain can be described as a "Russian nesting doll" in the sense that the most ancient areas of the brain responsible for lower functions are located at its centre while newer ...
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Square root transformation of Poisson process. How Var[P(sqrt(lambda))] ~ 1/4?

I am working on Kaggle Neural data challenge. A number of spikes given a stimulus are Poisson distributed as $$Y_i \sim P(\lambda_i)$$ The mean and variance of any Poisson process is given as $$E[P(\...
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Different plasticity mechanisms in different species

Are the neural plasticity mechanisms behind learning essentially the same across different species? For instance, is STDP assumed to be a standard mechanism in almost anything with a brain, or is it ...
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What does the following sentence mean? I don't understand what they are referring to when they say “saturating concentrations” and “basal conditions”?

Here is the quote: "Because BH4 is not present in saturating concentrations under basal conditions, it is crucial in regulating TH activity." This is from Fundamental Neuroscience, page 121.
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Rate of Change in Neural Plasticity

I read that children brain has more neural plasticity compared to adults, with the possible explanation as appeared in this question, pertaining to synaptic changes, where if you learn something, the ...
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Types of receptors on a single synapse or neuron

I have been googling and couldn't find the answer to these questions. For a given synapse, can a post-synaptic neuron have multiple types of receptors for different neurotransmitters or is typically ...
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research based criteria domain and DSM5

Is there any major difference between the two classification systems ? and why is there no awareness as of yet about research based domain for classifying mental disorders when it for the larger part ...
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Do stronger emotions take longer to process with dreams?

One theory of dreams is they help us process strong experiences. So I wondered whether one needs a longer sleep after some strong experiences partly to give the brain longer to complete the healing/...
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How does the brain interpret electrical brain stimulation?

I believe I understand the natural path, in which stimuli appear and by neural plasticity our brains "learn" these stimuli. I recently learned about electrical brain stimulation and I was ...
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How does Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) restore motor functions and non-motor functions in SCI patients

I am an engineer dealing with Brain-Computer Interface, and at the moment, in a clinical context. One area which I came across was rehabilitation for patients suffering from Spinal Cord Injuries or ...
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Do neurons have a single transmitters vesicle per synapse they have?

Do neurons have a single transmitters vesicle per synapse they have? So when they will be activated, each transmitter vesicle is going to one synapse. Or is it that neurons release some amount of ...
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Do all neurons have a “job”, or are some waiting to be assigned for a novel stimuli to appear?

Do all neurons have something to do (i.e. all are activated for some known stimuli), and when a novel stimuli appear some of them change in some way so we can learn it? Or is it that we have "new&...
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How does pattern separation works?

I found an article that stated: "Researchers think neurogenesis helps the brain distinguish between two very similar objects or events, a phenomenon called pattern separation. According to one ...
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How do neurons know where to send transmitters?

If a single neuron can have thousands of synapses with other neurons, how do each neuron "knows" to which further neuron to send transmitters? i.e. selectivity
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Reaction when light is turning on and off

This question comes from a personal experience I've had over the last few days, 'experimenting' on my own. I have a light bulb in a room that is turning on and off periodically, let's say per second. ...
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How to take advantage of the withdrawal symptoms of antidopaminergics?

So this may be a stupid question as I am not trained in neuroscience or psychology at all, but I had an idea about a somewhat counterintuitive approach to psychotropics and was wondering whether if it ...

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