Questions tagged [neurophysiology]

The study of the physiology of the nervous system, with emphasis on transcellular communication, and cellular and molecular processes involved in neural communication.

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Why are thicker nerve fibers more easy to stimulate?

experiments have shown that thicker nerve fibers are more easy to stimulate and myelinated ones are more easy to stimulate than unmyelinated ones. increasing diameter means lower axial resistance from ...
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where is the second electrode in case of electrostimulation

With electrostimulation or functional electrostimulation, a response from the neuron is generated by electrical impulses. But I always read, for example, that a stimulating electrode is above position ...
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Noise in Neurons (channel noise)

If you stimulate neurons 10 times with the same electrical pulse, you will get a different response 10 times. For example, if you apply a pulse near the threshold, you may get 7 APs, which are ...
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How do the outer hair cells amplify the traveling wave?

Depending on the movement frequency, outer hair cells can stretch and contract, amplifying the amplitude of the traveling wave at the basilar membrane. How can they do this exactly? what is the point ...
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What are the advantages of biphasic nerve stimulation?

One can stimulate nerves or muscle cells in different ways - with single-phase or multiphase pulses, cathodic or anodic, and via surface electrodes or implanted ones. What exactly is the advantage of ...
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Deflection of the basilar membrane

The basilar membrane becomes thicker and heavier from the basal end to the apical upper end - this is why high frequencies are perceived in the lower range and low frequencies in the upper range. But ...
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Understanding ketamine, the role of synatptic placitity in Major Depression

I am having a bit of an issue with my intuitive understanding of Ketamine's newfound role in treating depression. It is my understanding that Ketamine works by allowing synaptogenesis. The evidence ...
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Do induced brain wave patterns give the same cognitive and perceptual consequences as those that arise naturally? [duplicate]

What I mean to ask by this particular question is that, are the effects resulting from neural interactions in the brain that cause the emergence of certain behaviours, with the neural frequencies in ...
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What are the values of the absolute intracellular and absolute extracellular potentials in a neuron?

Most texts on neurons give the value of the membrane potential and do not state the absolute values of the intracellular and extracellular potentials in a neuron. I understand that this is because the ...
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What is the cochlear frequency response by number of hair cells?

I am trying to recreate the cochlea/basilar membrane response to sound and want to know how the hair cells are bucketed or binned by frequency, so an ideal list would be something like 10 kHz - 12 kHz:...
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What is the size limit of molecules entering the intracellular sections of a neuron?

As voltage sensitive organic dyes enter the inside of neurons and quantum dots are seeking to replace these due to their higher quantum yield, I was wondering what the seize limit is, as quantum dot ...
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Does the sensation of pain arise in the brain? [duplicate]

I can feel pain in my arm or in my brain. I have read that you can feel a phantom pain. As if the pain exists outside the body. There is a related process in the brain but the feeling itself seems to ...
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Are there equivalent calcium imaging molecules that fluoresce in the presence of neurotransmitters between axons?

Molecules like GCaMP fluoresce when calcium ions attach to them. I was wondering if this can work with the other neurotransmitters in the brain or compounds that transmit signals outside of neurons.
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How close are fluorescent dyes to individual neurons in two photon microscopy?

Considering the minute electrical excitation produced by neural cells needed to excite fluorescent dyes, how close are they to these cells, considering that being too close will disrupt cell processes....
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What is the neurobiological mechanism behind masochism?

I tried to search in textbooks and papers but barely found any concrete answer to which exact mechanism is behind non-intuitive transition from pain to pleasure. Does it have something to do with: ...
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Is there a no-change plateau in the bidirectional calmoduline regulated plasticity proposed by Lisman in 1989?

Reading the paper "A mechanism for the Hebb and the anti-Hebb processes underlying learning and memory" Lisman 1989, especially figure 2, it gives the impression that in the bidirectional ...
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What comes first? Thought or electric activity?

Our thoughts are basically the result of the electro chemical activity which are happening in our neurons. The signals sent by different neurons to each other back and forth create a pattern which we ...
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What is "required reading" in training that describe mechanisms behind learning?

I've previously studied spiking neural networks in the context of machine learning applications and I'm interested in gaining a better understanding of the biology of the brain. My goal is to ...
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Can some stimulants take the place of others?

I learned in class recently that neuroreceptors can cause different chemical changes in the brain and nervous system. I was told that stimulants increase heart rate and awareness, which got me ...
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High blood pressure can lead to anxiety?

I know that anxiety leads to high blood pressure due to elevations of adrenaline. It also can also increase cortisol levels which as the Mayo Clinic points out: curbs functions that would be ...
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What is the difference between recurrent and feedback synapses?

In the paper proposing recurrent convolutional neural networks (RCNN), "Recurrent Convolutional Neural Network for Object Recognition", it is stated that "recurrent synapses typically ...
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Structure of synapse

When we study the structure of the chemical synapse, by default we come across Axo-dendritic synapse consisting of various cell adhesion molecules/receptors etc. (like this). However, I was ...
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Measuring postsynaptic potential vs action potential at axon hillock?

I have been reading literature regarding Neuronal potential measurement. Conventionally, researchers use electrode-based method to measure action potential. However, as it's of high invasiveness and ...
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Using Vagus Nerve Stimulation to treat Depression

I came across an article written recently concerning the use of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) to treat difficult-to-treat depression (DTD) and other mood disorders (Sackeim, et al. 2020). However, ...
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How to determine nerve conduction velocity?

Can anyone suggest good sources or papers to understand about experimental setup and procedure for measuring nerve conduction velocity for various types of neurons? I wish to learn how such ...
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Neural oscillations and activity patterns

Both single neurons and groups of neurons can generate oscillatory activity spontaneously. In addition, they may show oscillatory responses to perceptual input or motor output. Even memory and ...
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Free will and neuron firing

I have been reading a lot about free will and the most recent neuroscience experiments in that field. However, one way question troubles me to which I have never been able to find any study. We know ...
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Types of receptors on a single synapse or neuron

I have been googling and couldn't find the answer to these questions. For a given synapse, can a post-synaptic neuron have multiple types of receptors for different neurotransmitters or is typically ...
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2answers
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In principle, could a brain be rewired to experience more pleasure and/or pain?

I'm not sure if these are two separate questions, but I'm curious: in theory, could an existing adult mind/brain be modified to perceive pleasure/pain signals more intensely than otherwise? Without ...
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Has anyone tried using functional near-infrared spectropathy to quantitively measure sodium concentrations in the brain?

Functional near-infrared spectropathy "fNIRS", is a biophysics/medical technique that uses the near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 680nm to 810nm in wavelength) to ...
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What is the medullary bulb transition?

Does "medullary bulb transition" make sense in neuroanatomy internattionally or is it a Brazilian invention and there is no term like that in English? What is then the difference of the &...
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Interpreting FURA depolarization/calcium assay

I did a depolarization experiment that compared a mock-treated cell line with a treated line. One part of the results are easy to interpret: Treatment resulted in lower 350/380 ratios along the length ...
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What is the size, volume, dimensions etc. of the central lateral nucleus in the anterior intralaminar thalamus in humans?

I have been searching extensively on the internet and journal articles for the size, volume, dimensions, etc. of the central lateral nucleus in the anterior intralaminar thalamus in humans but have ...
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What has changed in your brain after electroconvulsive "therapy" (ECT)?

From this Wikipedia article: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures in the brain (without muscular convulsions) are ...
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Is there a mechanical/vibrational communication method between pre- and post-synaptic terminals in addition to chemical and electrical synapses?

I recall hearing something about there being a mechanical way that two neurons can communicate with each other in addition to the chemical and electrical synapse methods. Something about a certain ...
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What degree of control do we have on eye movements?

When something "new" and "interesting" enters our visual field it can usually happen that our eyes move toward the new target. How "intentional" and "controllable&...
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What is the neuroscience behind copying dialect?

So everybody raised in the same area speaks with the same dialect, why is it so? What is the neuroscience behind this phenomenon?
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Can two neurons stimulate each other?

Is it possible that two neurons stimulate each other in an everlasting two neuron circuit?
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Neuron specialization in the Visual System

Can someone point me to a good resource to explain how neurons in the visual system become sensitive to visual features? I understand that specific neurons fire for things like direction of motion, ...
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1answer
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Is there any justification for viewing neurons as self-interested agents?

There are aspects of cognition that are vaguely reminiscent of markets within an economy. For example, there is specialization as well as integration within both brains and economies. One of the ...
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Are there synapses on other neuron terminals in human brain like in Aplysia

I am referring to Eric Kandel and his experiment on Aplysia where he shows that synapses between a pair of neurons can be modulated by means of a third neuron that synapses onto the terminals of the ...
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How a signal is generated by the brain when we want to move a body [duplicate]

I've read tons of articles about how moving our bodies is going on. BUT I've found some part of topic just IGNORED. ALL authors just pass the part "our brain generates the signal". I have been trying ...
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What are the necessary preconditions for the emergence of a conscience?

I am aware of 2 brain anomalies that seem to be associated with the non-emergence of a conscience. One is associated with psychopathy. The other is associated with narcissism. psychopathy: My ...
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Minimum constant neuron firing rate

Please forgive what may be an elementary question for many of you. I am trying to understand the range of firing rates in an idealized neuron. I understand what governs the maximum firing rate of a ...
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1answer
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Is there a way that an infection could target a specific area of the brain?

My question is in regards to a fungal infection, but I am open to learning about viral or bacterial infections. That being said, is it possible that a fungus/virus/etc could target a specific area of ...
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Where to find information regarding the effect of ion concentration in the brain on behaviour?

Hopefully this is the right area. but for some background, for a school project I'm currently trying to design a medically accurate zombie. I have half a semesters knowledge of basic physiology, and ...
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How does the body respond to having excess levels of neuronal, not synaptic, serotonin?

If a person consumes large amounts of 5-HTP or SAM-e resulting in elevated serotonin levels in their synaptic vesicles, how is this excess offloaded? What is the average rate of clearance? All the ...
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Does thinking or focusing on something alter a neuron's speed?

I Googled about this but couldn't find any thing precise to be that does thinking about something hard alters the speed of neurons impulses? I have heard of neurons velocity being variable but want to ...
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Functional vs. synaptic connectivity

I used to believe that connectivity is nothing but synaptic connectivity and thus a long-term concept: synapses grow and synaptic strengths change on rather large time scales. But recently I found ...
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Neurotransmitters by neuron types

I'm looking for a concise overview table of all types of neurons (whose number is at least in the hundreds) indicating which neurotransmitters they use pre- and post-synaptically (of which there are ...