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Questions tagged [neurophysiology]

The study of the physiology of the nervous system, with emphasis on transcellular communication, and cellular and molecular processes involved in neural communication.

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How does caffeine work as an analgesic adjuvant?

Caffeine is used an adjuvant in over-the-couner pain medication, e.g. added to paracetamol and/or aspirin. A brief look at the Wikipedia page on caffeine doesn't indicate any analgesic effect of ...
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How are tactile pleasure and pain differentiated in the somatosensory cortex?

A recent question here asked about (mostly) how pain and pleasure are differentiated in pathways involving reward/aversion cues. But there was some confusion as to what the question really wanted to ...
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Is there a region of the brain that mediates pain in a manner reminiscent of the mesolimbic pathway?

The mesolimbic dopamine pathway is a common neural pathway upon which rewards converge AKA the pleasure pathway. So I am trying to find a comparable pathway in the brain for pain -- is there such a ...
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Will studying formal logic improves logical reasoning?

Reason for asking question: I am looking to see if there is any good empirical evidence or study that shows or suggests that studying former logic or maybe informal logic would actually improve ...
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Is Dr. Russo’s “endocannabinoid deficiency” a valid theory?

There was a study published in Neuro Endocrinology Letters by Dr. Ethan Russo in 2004 that says many diseases being treated with cannabis correlate with an “endocannabinoid deficiency”, but I cannot ...
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Frissons on demand

Have you ever listened to music and it gives you "chills?" This response is called a "frisson," a french word meaning "to shiver." When I want to access certain emotional and inspirationally charged ...
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Performance of a damaged brain

I have heard stories/reports that if a certain part of the brain (taking care of certain functions) is damaged other parts take over the function of the damaged part. Intuitively this could mean 2 ...
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Does anybody know a source having multi-electrode (several channels) recorded data of multiple Neurons (I prefer real data not artificial)?

I mean recorded data of multiple Neurons with multi-electrode. I need this data as the input for my experiment.
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What introductory textbook is available about the corticostriatal brain circuitry?

I want to understand the basal ganglia better. In particular, I want to understand the role of the corticostriatal brain circuitry for non-motor functions, including emotion and cognition. I have ...
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Can you get sad by sniffing onions, just like you can get happy by forcing yourself to smile?

I've read about a study where they found that people who were forced to keep a smile-like face were reportedly happier than those who were forced to stay in a frown-like a face. Similarly, could ...
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How serious is my case and should I get help? [closed]

So I have been experimenting a bit with pshycadelics nothing too much , I did lsd twice in a period of 3 months , inbetween i have done mdma once. Two weeks after my last use of lsd I started noticing ...
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Names of branches of neuroscience and related fields dealing with hunger, taste, attachment, and digestion, and their relationship to other perception

I would like to know what the branches of neuroscience, cognitive science, psychology, and psychiatry related to what happens when the tongue touches and other possible related mouth sensors, touch, ...
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Can reuptake absorb a selective or non-selective agonist?

For example, a lot of antipsychotics are chemically similar to serotonin, and at least partially trigger certain types of serotonin receptors. Is there any evidence to suggest that, because of their ...
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Does NMDA-receptor activation depend on neighboring AMPA-receptor activity?

This question is coming out of a couple points of confusion after I learned about about NMDA receptors' role in LTP. I got the impression that after AMPA receptors were activated enough, which ...
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Stroke amelioration

Excessive sugar, like Pepsi, is considered harmful. However, I am wondering if it could be helpful if taken by a victim of stroke during or immediately after a stroke, or somewhat after a stroke? My ...
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Can an axon connect to dendrites of multiple other neurons?

In a typical multi-polar neuron, an axon has multiple axon terminals that can connect to another neuron's dendrites. Are there cases where an axon connects to dendrites of multiple neurons?
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Is Tinnitus a result of brain damage?

It is well known that loud noises can lead to hearing problems such as temporary hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and even permanent hearing loss. But this is the first time scientists ...
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Measure of sentience across the animal kingdom

I realize this is quite difficult but if we wanted to estimate the degree of sentience for a particular species what would be the best proxy in the brain? Would it be the number of cortical neurons or ...
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Why does a higher post-synaptic cell resistance lead to a higher voltage change when current is applied?

In the "Principles of Neural Science" 5th edition in the discussion about electrical synapses it says: During excitatory synaptic transmission at an electrical synapse, voltage-gated ion channels ...
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What is the frequency range of electrotactile stimulation?

I have been trying to find out what the (human) electrotactile frequency range is. Since this is a much more experimental method (and more unpleasant) than the traditional vibrotactile method, the ...
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Neurogensis in CNS invloves apoptosis of scar cells?

Say there's neurogensis in a brain area that seems to "allow" it, like the Hipocampus, Striatum, and so forth. Does this neurogensis might be preceded in the apoptosis of scar cells, and then, in the ...
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Which possible methods can be used to determine if a certain part of the brain is active?

The question goes back to this tweet: Julia‏ @JuliaHass I just learned that elephants think humans are cute the way humans think puppies are cute (the same part of the brain lights up when ...
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Does the brain's architecture change while growing up?

If we are somehow able to record and store all the neural connection in the brain of a child and also the brain of the same individual when he is old will there be difference between the two ? Is the ...
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Can non-spiking neurons have a sustained synaptic output current?

I'm trying to better understand neural models, specifically non-spiking neurons in invertebrate motor control circuits. I know that a spiking neuron produces spikes in membrane potential that rapidly ...
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Are inhibitory synapses governed by different chemicals than excitatory synapses?

If a neuron has both excitatory and inhibitory chemical synapses providing it with input, is it true in all organisms that the chemicals that cause the inhibition are distinct from those that cause ...
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Why our brain can't fool itself to constantly produce dopamine?

There are experiments [1] showing that our brain tries to maximize amount of dopamine. At the same time it is the brain who controls the dopamine level, because the reward system is located in the ...
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What electrical stimuli do brain implants use?

I was reading about artificial eyes and came to think about how the brain works. More specifically, what "signals" it uses in the case of cortical visual prosthetics in blind people? Cortical ...
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What are the temporal limits of the auditory system?

I would like to know what the time scale is of the human ear. I mean, what is the shortest duration of a sound that a human ear can notice and what is the longest duration of a sound that a human ear ...
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What are the definitions of 'multi-channel coding' and 'opponent channel coding'?

I am looking for the definitions of Multi-channel coding Opponent-channel coding And specifically in the context of visual adaptation. I have searched for information on the web and in books, but ...
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Ligand-gated ion channels as operators

Isn't there a perfect analogy between ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels considered (mathematically) as (non-linear) operators, mapping one function (of time) to another one? Voltage-gated ...
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What is the cause of differences that are too small to see?

Consider two identical pieces of paper. Scenario 1: On both something is drawn in black ink. If the difference between the areas covered in black ink is sufficiently small, I cannot see the ...
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Is there a waterfall visual after-effect with discrete inputs?

If you watch a waterfall for several seconds and then suddenly change your gaze to a fixed object it appears to briefly move upward. But if instead you're looking at a scrolling LED marquee sign, ...
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Effect of plateau in BTSP

In "Behavioral time scale synaptic plasticity underlies CA1 place fields" by Bittner et al. an alternative to Hebbian plasticity is proposed called Behavioral Time-scale Synaptic Plasticity (BTSP). ...
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Voltage-dependent ion channels as operators

Does it make sense (or is even the standard approach) to model mathematically a voltage-dependent ion channel not as a function, that maps a voltage to a conductance ($f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{...
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Spike-timing-dependent plasticity versus Homeostatic plasticity

How can spike-timing-dependent plasticity and homeostatic plasticity both be right? If spike-timing-dependent plasticity consistently tries to strengthen connections, but homeostatic plasticity ...
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What are the names of the white matter tracts in the cortico-ventral basal ganglia circuit?

I am looking at diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. The data is clustered by regions of interest (ROIs). The clusters have locations with names, which I have listed below. Which location names ...
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Does increased neural complexity slows down brain operation speeds?

If a sensory input is perceived, one needs to process this input from the sensory end organ (sensation) up to the brain (perception). Does a more more complex neural network consume more time than a ...
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What is the computational role of the cortical column?

The cortex is supposedly composed of semi uniform cortical columns that are interlinked. Many of the resources on cortical columns I found using a Google search do not discuss what a column computes (...
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How to differentiate attentiveness, arousal and memory via gamma oscillations

I am planning an experiment using mice with in vivo extracellular recordings (and maybe also optogenetic stimulation). In these kinds of experiments, the mouse is getting a reward after executing a (...
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What explains the characteristics of the receptive fields of simple cells in V1?

Here is a YouTube video of a Hubel & Wiesel experiment from 1965 in the visual cortex. The video shows the experimenters outlining the receptive field of a simple cell in the first part of the ...
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Does the peripheral nervous system processes information like central neurons do?

Neural coding deals with the problem on how neurons or a network of neurons processes a stimulus and creates a response in form of electrical action potentials. Information then might be encoded in ...
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Where can I find the connectivity matrix of the connectome of C. Elegans?

I am trying to find the entire connectivity matrix for the connectome of the roundworm C. elegans. It is a much studied animal, as it features just a handful of neurons in its nervous system, 302 to ...
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Pleasure can be implicated in a chemical reaction in the brain, but does this really affect the intensity of the feeling?

It is true that many, if not all feelings of our mind like euphoria, dysphoria, pleasure, sadness et cetera are linked to a chemical reaction in our brain. This reaction is essentially what causes us ...
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What happens in my retina if I press on my eyeballs?

If I press my eyes I can "see" all kind of things: sparkling blue dots (which sometimes seem random and sometimes there seems to be a pattern in them), growing or diminishing rings of all kinds of ...
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Are all dendrites targeted by an axon, or are there a lot of “empty” dendrites?

As far as I understand, one neuron can have up to 200 000 dendrites (e.g. purkinje cells). As for axons, there can be only one per neuron, which can divide into thousands (but not hundreds of ...
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Is there knowledge of the receptive field patterns of cortical columns in associative brain regions?

The retinotopic, area-based connectivity patterns of the columnar receptive fields in the visual cortex are well-established. Do any mappings of the columnar receptive field connectivity patterns ...
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How does neuron stimulation work?

Neurons are excited via an external electrode by passing current through it. A neuron at rest is at -70 mV, it needs additional charge amounting to around 15 mV to initiate an action potential. But ...
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Is it true that stimulants make neurons fire more often, and depressants make them fire less often?

Is it true that stimulants and the neurotransmitters they mimic, push into the synapse, or keep in the synapse (e.g. dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine) make neurons fire more often, while ...
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Can color blindness be treated with image filtering technology?

Using image color-filtering techniques we can simulate the way colorblind people see: The aim of this question is to know whether the opposite process could be possible, namely can a colorblind ...
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Does the split brain disprove a materialistic mind?

According to materialism, the conscious mind is the product of the brain. Thus, if the brain is split in half such that the two hemispheres cannot communicate with each other, then there are three ...