Questions tagged [neurophysiology]

The study of the physiology of the nervous system, with emphasis on transcellular communication, and cellular and molecular processes involved in neural communication.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1 vote
0 answers
12 views

Changes to the brain regions due to PTSD

I mentiond in my other question today (Changes to the amygdala due to PTSD) that the one thing I have often heard regarding changes in the brain due to trauma and PTSD is that the amygdala is enlarged ...
user avatar
  • 11.1k
2 votes
0 answers
15 views

Changes to the amygdala due to PTSD

The one thing I have often heard regarding changes in the brain due to trauma and PTSD is that the amygdala is enlarged (e.g. Kuo et al, 2012). This is understandable considering the amygdala is ...
user avatar
  • 11.1k
2 votes
0 answers
14 views

In pyramidal neurons, are there any differences (morphological or otherwise) between the basal synapses and proximal synapses on the apical tuft?

In pyramidal neurons, are there any differences (morphological or otherwise) between the basal synapses and proximal synapses on the apical tuft ? As far as I know, they both have dendritic spines, ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

Why are there different neurotransmitters in central nervous system?

If an effect of binding the neurotransmitter depends on the receptor type, not the neurotransmitter itself, then why don't we have just one neurotransmitter and many different receptors?
user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
1 answer
32 views

Why are synapses that are connected to co-transmitting presynaptic vesicles uniformly distributed on the postsynaptic neuron?

This paper on functional implications of co-release and co-transmission says that "Consistent with a co-transmission phenotype, cholinergic synapses are uniformly distributed on the postsynaptic ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
43 views

Is thermoception part of the sense of touch in the 5 human senses or is it a 6th separate sense?

In an answer provided by DavidCian, it is mentioned that thermoception is separate to the 5 human bodily senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste). Yet, I would have thought it would be part of ...
user avatar
  • 11.1k
3 votes
1 answer
34 views

where is the second electrode in case of electrostimulation

With electrostimulation or functional electrostimulation, a response from the neuron is generated by electrical impulses. But I always read, for example, that a stimulating electrode is above position ...
user avatar
  • 31
2 votes
1 answer
47 views

How do the outer hair cells amplify the traveling wave?

Depending on the movement frequency, outer hair cells can stretch and contract, amplifying the amplitude of the traveling wave at the basilar membrane. How can they do this exactly? what is the point ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
42 views

What are the advantages of biphasic nerve stimulation?

One can stimulate nerves or muscle cells in different ways - with single-phase or multiphase pulses, cathodic or anodic, and via surface electrodes or implanted ones. What exactly is the advantage of ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
69 views

Deflection of the basilar membrane

The basilar membrane becomes thicker and heavier from the basal end to the apical upper end - this is why high frequencies are perceived in the lower range and low frequencies in the upper range. But ...
user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
58 views

Understanding ketamine, the role of synatptic placitity in Major Depression

I am having a bit of an issue with my intuitive understanding of Ketamine's newfound role in treating depression. It is my understanding that Ketamine works by allowing synaptogenesis. The evidence ...
user avatar
  • 281
4 votes
1 answer
56 views

Do induced brain wave patterns give the same cognitive and perceptual consequences as those that arise naturally? [duplicate]

What I mean to ask by this particular question is that, are the effects resulting from neural interactions in the brain that cause the emergence of certain behaviours, with the neural frequencies in ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
43 views

What are the values of the absolute intracellular and absolute extracellular potentials in a neuron?

Most texts on neurons give the value of the membrane potential and do not state the absolute values of the intracellular and extracellular potentials in a neuron. I understand that this is because the ...
user avatar
  • 11
2 votes
1 answer
121 views

What is the cochlear frequency response by number of hair cells?

I am trying to recreate the cochlea/basilar membrane response to sound and want to know how the hair cells are bucketed or binned by frequency, so an ideal list would be something like 10 kHz - 12 kHz:...
user avatar
  • 577
0 votes
1 answer
18 views

What is the size limit of molecules entering the intracellular sections of a neuron?

As voltage sensitive organic dyes enter the inside of neurons and quantum dots are seeking to replace these due to their higher quantum yield, I was wondering what the seize limit is, as quantum dot ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

Does the sensation of pain arise in the brain? [duplicate]

I can feel pain in my arm or in my brain. I have read that you can feel a phantom pain. As if the pain exists outside the body. There is a related process in the brain but the feeling itself seems to ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
24 views

Are there equivalent calcium imaging molecules that fluoresce in the presence of neurotransmitters between axons?

Molecules like GCaMP fluoresce when calcium ions attach to them. I was wondering if this can work with the other neurotransmitters in the brain or compounds that transmit signals outside of neurons.
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
31 views

How close are fluorescent dyes to individual neurons in two photon microscopy?

Considering the minute electrical excitation produced by neural cells needed to excite fluorescent dyes, how close are they to these cells, considering that being too close will disrupt cell processes....
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
146 views

What is the neurobiological mechanism behind masochism?

I tried to search in textbooks and papers but barely found any concrete answer to which exact mechanism is behind non-intuitive transition from pain to pleasure. Does it have something to do with: ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
116 views

What comes first? Thought or electric activity?

Our thoughts are basically the result of the electro chemical activity which are happening in our neurons. The signals sent by different neurons to each other back and forth create a pattern which we ...
user avatar
  • 125
0 votes
1 answer
59 views

What is "required reading" in training that describe mechanisms behind learning?

I've previously studied spiking neural networks in the context of machine learning applications and I'm interested in gaining a better understanding of the biology of the brain. My goal is to ...
user avatar
  • 247
1 vote
0 answers
23 views

Can some stimulants take the place of others?

I learned in class recently that neuroreceptors can cause different chemical changes in the brain and nervous system. I was told that stimulants increase heart rate and awareness, which got me ...
user avatar
  • 11
6 votes
1 answer
117 views

High blood pressure can lead to anxiety?

I know that anxiety leads to high blood pressure due to elevations of adrenaline. It also can also increase cortisol levels which as the Mayo Clinic points out: curbs functions that would be ...
user avatar
  • 11.1k
2 votes
1 answer
82 views

What is the difference between recurrent and feedback synapses?

In the paper proposing recurrent convolutional neural networks (RCNN), "Recurrent Convolutional Neural Network for Object Recognition", it is stated that "recurrent synapses typically ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

Structure of synapse

When we study the structure of the chemical synapse, by default we come across Axo-dendritic synapse consisting of various cell adhesion molecules/receptors etc. (like this). However, I was ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
52 views

Measuring postsynaptic potential vs action potential at axon hillock?

I have been reading literature regarding Neuronal potential measurement. Conventionally, researchers use electrode-based method to measure action potential. However, as it's of high invasiveness and ...
user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
64 views

Using Vagus Nerve Stimulation to treat Depression

I came across an article written recently concerning the use of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) to treat difficult-to-treat depression (DTD) and other mood disorders (Sackeim, et al. 2020). However, ...
user avatar
  • 11.1k
1 vote
1 answer
133 views

How to determine nerve conduction velocity?

Can anyone suggest good sources or papers to understand about experimental setup and procedure for measuring nerve conduction velocity for various types of neurons? I wish to learn how such ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
91 views

Neural oscillations and activity patterns

Both single neurons and groups of neurons can generate oscillatory activity spontaneously. In addition, they may show oscillatory responses to perceptual input or motor output. Even memory and ...
user avatar
  • 125
0 votes
0 answers
57 views

Free will and neuron firing

I have been reading a lot about free will and the most recent neuroscience experiments in that field. However, one way question troubles me to which I have never been able to find any study. We know ...
user avatar
  • 1
2 votes
1 answer
146 views

Types of receptors on a single synapse or neuron

I have been googling and couldn't find the answer to these questions. For a given synapse, can a post-synaptic neuron have multiple types of receptors for different neurotransmitters or is typically ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
102 views

In principle, could a brain be rewired to experience more pleasure and/or pain?

I'm not sure if these are two separate questions, but I'm curious: in theory, could an existing adult mind/brain be modified to perceive pleasure/pain signals more intensely than otherwise? Without ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Has anyone tried using functional near-infrared spectropathy to quantitively measure sodium concentrations in the brain?

Functional near-infrared spectropathy "fNIRS", is a biophysics/medical technique that uses the near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 680nm to 810nm in wavelength) to ...
user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
39 views

What is the medullary bulb transition?

Does "medullary bulb transition" make sense in neuroanatomy internattionally or is it a Brazilian invention and there is no term like that in English? What is then the difference of the &...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
11 views

Interpreting FURA depolarization/calcium assay

I did a depolarization experiment that compared a mock-treated cell line with a treated line. One part of the results are easy to interpret: Treatment resulted in lower 350/380 ratios along the length ...
user avatar
  • 101
1 vote
0 answers
14 views

What is the size, volume, dimensions etc. of the central lateral nucleus in the anterior intralaminar thalamus in humans?

I have been searching extensively on the internet and journal articles for the size, volume, dimensions, etc. of the central lateral nucleus in the anterior intralaminar thalamus in humans but have ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
32 views

What has changed in your brain after electroconvulsive "therapy" (ECT)?

From this Wikipedia article: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures in the brain (without muscular convulsions) are ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
43 views

Is there a mechanical/vibrational communication method between pre- and post-synaptic terminals in addition to chemical and electrical synapses?

I recall hearing something about there being a mechanical way that two neurons can communicate with each other in addition to the chemical and electrical synapse methods. Something about a certain ...
user avatar
  • 113
4 votes
1 answer
71 views

What degree of control do we have on eye movements?

When something "new" and "interesting" enters our visual field it can usually happen that our eyes move toward the new target. How "intentional" and "controllable&...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
26 views

What is the neuroscience behind copying dialect?

So everybody raised in the same area speaks with the same dialect, why is it so? What is the neuroscience behind this phenomenon?
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
58 views

Can two neurons stimulate each other?

Is it possible that two neurons stimulate each other in an everlasting two neuron circuit?
user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
21 views

Neuron specialization in the Visual System

Can someone point me to a good resource to explain how neurons in the visual system become sensitive to visual features? I understand that specific neurons fire for things like direction of motion, ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
89 views

Is there any justification for viewing neurons as self-interested agents?

There are aspects of cognition that are vaguely reminiscent of markets within an economy. For example, there is specialization as well as integration within both brains and economies. One of the ...
user avatar
  • 439
6 votes
1 answer
79 views

Are there synapses on other neuron terminals in human brain like in Aplysia

I am referring to Eric Kandel and his experiment on Aplysia where he shows that synapses between a pair of neurons can be modulated by means of a third neuron that synapses onto the terminals of the ...
user avatar
  • 61
0 votes
0 answers
31 views

How a signal is generated by the brain when we want to move a body [duplicate]

I've read tons of articles about how moving our bodies is going on. BUT I've found some part of topic just IGNORED. ALL authors just pass the part "our brain generates the signal". I have been trying ...
user avatar
  • 1
5 votes
0 answers
185 views

What are the necessary preconditions for the emergence of a conscience?

I am aware of 2 brain anomalies that seem to be associated with the non-emergence of a conscience. One is associated with psychopathy. The other is associated with narcissism. psychopathy: My ...
user avatar
  • 465
3 votes
0 answers
34 views

Minimum constant neuron firing rate

Please forgive what may be an elementary question for many of you. I am trying to understand the range of firing rates in an idealized neuron. I understand what governs the maximum firing rate of a ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
53 views

Is there a way that an infection could target a specific area of the brain?

My question is in regards to a fungal infection, but I am open to learning about viral or bacterial infections. That being said, is it possible that a fungus/virus/etc could target a specific area of ...
user avatar
  • 43
1 vote
1 answer
49 views

Where to find information regarding the effect of ion concentration in the brain on behaviour?

Hopefully this is the right area. but for some background, for a school project I'm currently trying to design a medically accurate zombie. I have half a semesters knowledge of basic physiology, and ...
user avatar
  • 43
1 vote
0 answers
37 views

How does the body respond to having excess levels of neuronal, not synaptic, serotonin?

If a person consumes large amounts of 5-HTP or SAM-e resulting in elevated serotonin levels in their synaptic vesicles, how is this excess offloaded? What is the average rate of clearance? All the ...
user avatar