Questions tagged [neuroanatomy]

For questions regarding specific structures in the central and peripheral nervous systems

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14
votes
2answers
7k views

Folding (wrinkles) in cortex: Why is surface area more important than volume?

When we look at the cortex of the brain, it has a folded structure. It is said that this is because this enables a greater number of neurons to exist, which is obviously advantageous. However, we ...
11
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2answers
662 views

Which are the multisensory brain areas?

What would be an example of a multisensory brain area, where multiple senses (e.g. smell and taste) are combined to decode the corresponding stimuli from more than one sensory organ? I was thinking ...
10
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3answers
419 views

Which area of the brain was first correctly associated with a specific function?

I have read on this website that Broca's area was the first area of the brain to be associated correctly with a specific function, in that case language. But I couldn't find any other source for the ...
10
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3answers
1k views

Non coitus sexual activity and the brain

Most animals will only engage in sexual activity that can result in reproduction. There are some exceptions; Bonobos, for instance, engage in a lot of sexual activity that does not involve coitus. ...
10
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1answer
410 views

Fusiform Face Area (FFA) for within class recognition?

Is there any evidence (papers, studies, etc) that the Fusiform Face Area is used for any other type of recognition besides facial recognition? I remember hearing or reading a long time ago that ...
10
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1answer
933 views

Does adult neurogenesis occur only in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus?

The scholarpedia article on this subject says: Adult neurogenesis is the process of generating new neurons which integrate into existing circuits after fetal and early postnatal development has ...
9
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1answer
293 views

How similar are the brains of twins?

I am currently reading undergraduate essays on biological dysfunction and schizophrenia. The students put a lot of weight in the fact that studies of monozygotic twins show only a 50% rate of ...
9
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1answer
476 views

What are the neural substrates of retrieval induced forgetting?

Retrieval-induced effects It is well known that practicing retrieval of remembered items increases the probability of correctly recalling that item in future tests: the testing effect. Retrieval-...
9
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1answer
1k views

How common is alien hand syndrome?

The impression that I got from looking at a couple of articles on alien hand syndrome was that it was an extremely common or basically guaranteed result of getting a callosotomy to treat severe ...
8
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2answers
41k views

Why is the order of white/grey matter different in the brain and spinal cord?

In the brain proper, grey matter forms the outer layer of the brain, and white matter forms the inner layer. In the spine, this is reversed: white matter forms the outer layer of the spine, and grey ...
8
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1answer
162 views

What is the meaning of "little efferent input" to retina?

Gollisch & Meister (2010) state that "the retina receives little efferent input from the brain" (p. 157). Could anyone describe what exactly this "little efferent input" (where it originates, ...
8
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3answers
3k views

What keeps the cerebrospinal fluid circulating? Is it pumped by something?

What keeps the cerebrospinal fluid circulating? Is it pumped by something? This picture from wikipedia seems to indicate that it pulsates as though it is pumped:
8
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1answer
270 views

Is neuroplasticity limited to the cerebral cortex in the brain?

In this question, I am defining neuroplasticity as being the creation of new connections between neurons. I'm aware that there is a high degree of neuroplasticity in the cortex and that new ...
8
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1answer
131 views

Comparative functional neuroanatomy: humans & octopodes

Cephalopod brains are toroidal (high surface area to volume ratios!), with the esophagus passing through the, uh, donut hole; octopodes are very intelligent, particularly spatially. Where can I find ...
8
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1answer
824 views

What brain regions are activated when a dream is remembered?

Some people remember dreams, others don't. The same person can wake up with dream recall one day and without on other days. I know that the association between REM sleep and dreaming was initially ...
7
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1answer
1k views

Are the human cerebral hemispheres only connected via the corpus callosum?

Are the human cerebral hemispheres only connected via the corpus callosum? Or is there any other structure for interaction between the left and right hemispheres?
7
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1answer
3k views

What are presynaptic puncta?

What are presynaptic puncta? And what makes them different from presynaptic terminals? I encountered the term puncta in the following article: Molofsky AV, Kelley KW, Tsai HH, Redmond SA, Chang SM, ...
7
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1answer
124 views

What can be inferred about the strength of the synapse from an electron microscope image?

In the following EM image (1um scale), there are several synapses: Image or HD Version What information about the synaptic strengths can be extracted from this image? Does vesicle count contain ...
7
votes
1answer
206 views

Is the ordering of Brodmann areas arbitrary?

A single Brodmann area is defined based off cellular composition. Are the Brodmann areas ordinal, and if so for what reason? (e.g. is there something that makes Brodmann area 1 the "first one", and ...
7
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1answer
159 views

How does it come about that specific areas of the brain are associated with specific functions?

During the development of the human brain, specific areas come to perform specific functions. How (and when) does this differentiation come about? Presumably, some areas of the brain naturally take ...
7
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0answers
210 views

Supplementary Motor Area or Juxtapositional Lobule Cortex

Harvard-Oxford Cortical Structural Atlas now calls the 'Supplementary Motor Area' the 'Juxtapositional Lobule Cortex (formerly Supplementary Motor Cortex)'. I've looked for papers that explain the ...
6
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1answer
2k views

Does every human brain have the same shape?

Apart from the general structure (6 layer cortex, same areas, etc.) does every brain have the exact same number and arrangement of sulci, gyri, etc? Do these elements have the same shape?
6
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0answers
137 views

Current estimates of the capacity of hippocampal episodic memory?

Let me preface this by saying I'm as skeptical as anyone about equating neural structures with traditional computing hardware (e.g. 'how many MBs is long term memory?'), but episodic memories seems ...
5
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3answers
7k views

Training for the corpus callosum?

Since reading is done in the left hemisphere of the brain, does reading text in the left visual field train the corpus callosum? For instance, I am interested in knowing whether training may lead to ...
5
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1answer
90 views

Is there a complete connectome of a minicolumn of the neocortex?

I know that there are projects that try to map brain connectivity. My question is whether there is a dataset available with the complete connectivity of just a single minicolumn of the neocortex. ...
5
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1answer
100 views

How far can a signal travel in the neocortex without passing through the white matter?

Correct me if I am wrong please, from what I understand horizontal communication spans very short distance in all layers of the neocortex but layers I and II. In these two layers dendrites and axons ...
5
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2answers
401 views

Can two neurons in the brain be connected more than once?

Can two given neurons in the human brain can be directly connected more than once, either mutually or in the same or direction? Also, can the same neuron have transitive connections to itself (in ...
5
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1answer
90 views

How many different synapses can an axon form? How do they differ?

It is estimated that the in the human brain there are about 100 billion neurons. With thousands of synapses for each of them, the total number of synapses is over 100 trillion. Yet each neuron has ...
5
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1answer
363 views

Are the language and sound centres of the brain in the same area?

I am an English major currently taking a Psycholinguistics module. One of the things we learned is that speech perception is handled differently from non-speech sound perception. Our brain is trained ...
5
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2answers
4k views

How many synapses in the average human brain?

Knowing there are 100,000,000,000 neurons in an average human brain, and 7,000 dendrites in each neuron, and neurons are connected to each other by dendrites and axon terminals, how many synapses are ...
5
votes
1answer
41 views

What introductory textbook is available about the corticostriatal brain circuitry?

I want to understand the basal ganglia better. In particular, I want to understand the role of the corticostriatal brain circuitry for non-motor functions, including emotion and cognition. I have ...
5
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0answers
71 views

How does de-myelination occur in multiple sclerosis? [closed]

From what I understand, only the oligodendrocytes are affected in multiple sclerosis, and they are attacked by T cells which cross the blood-brain barrier. This leads me to two questions: How is the ...
5
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0answers
437 views

What are the brain regions related to tinnitus shown in this figure?

I am interested in learning about the neural mechanisms behind tinnitus, and was wondering if someone could help me to name the parts of the brain on this image that show increased activity in ...
4
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2answers
142 views

Are axons in the brain weighted?

Is it known whether the connection strength of synapses is important to the functioning of the brain or does just the binary existence of a synapse matter? Also, how widely do the strengths of ...
4
votes
1answer
442 views

What causes Capgras ("imposter") Syndrome?

Capgras Syndrome is a rare disorder in which a person believes his or her loved ones have been replaced by identical-looking impostors (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capgras_delusion). What causes this ...
4
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2answers
137 views

Are brain sub-divisions based off embryonic development used when describing mature brains?

Are the terms for brain divisions based off of embryonic development (e.g. prosencephalon, diencephalon) used for mature brain divisions? (e.g. forebrain, interbrain). For example, would it be wrong ...
4
votes
1answer
128 views

Which areas of the brain make up the brain stem?

I am trying to learn the anatomy of the brain and am getting rather confused. When it comes to the brain stem, I have seen some sources say that it consists of the midbrain (mesencephalon) and ...
4
votes
1answer
96 views

What are there neuroanatomical mappings of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task?

I know that the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task is used to diagnose various mental disfunctions such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. However, has it been specified what brain regions or structures ...
4
votes
2answers
164 views

What does it mean when we say that "a neuron connects to a certain cortical layer"?

For example, if we say "a neuron connects to Layer V of the cortex", does it mean it synapses inside layer V, or does it imply that the soma of the neuron it synapses to is in Layer V (and it could ...
4
votes
1answer
399 views

What does 'Mean Diffusivity' tell me about the connectivity of cortical areas?

I am reading an article about changes in thalamic volume and connections in relation to age and I understand that thalamic volume decreases with age. The authors find that mean diffusivity (MD) in ...
4
votes
1answer
51 views

Do induced brain wave patterns give the same cognitive and perceptual consequences as those that arise naturally? [duplicate]

What I mean to ask by this particular question is that, are the effects resulting from neural interactions in the brain that cause the emergence of certain behaviours, with the neural frequencies in ...
3
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1answer
98 views

Myelin and Myelin Sheath

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002261.htm Why is Myelin used as a term to mean the Myelin Sheath as opposed to the proper term? It is apparent to me that Myelin is the substance itself ...
3
votes
1answer
33 views

How synapses are hold in place if they're not phisically attached?

When two neurons connect to form a synapse, between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic cells some space is found (synaptic cleft). How does this keep in position if there is no physical connection ...
3
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1answer
282 views

What is the purpose of hemispheric specialisation in the brain?

What is the benefit or purpose of having different hemispheres of the brain contribute more to different cognitive processes?
3
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1answer
83 views

What was the quantified brain volume of Albert Einstein?

I have read articles stating that Albert Einstein had an average brain volume but couldn't find a specific measurement. I'm curious because the articles are all so ambiguous. He could have been on the ...
3
votes
1answer
213 views

Are all dendrites targeted by an axon, or are there a lot of "empty" dendrites?

As far as I understand, one neuron can have up to 200 000 dendrites (e.g. purkinje cells). As for axons, there can be only one per neuron, which can divide into thousands (but not hundreds of ...
3
votes
1answer
484 views

Where can I find the connectivity matrix of the connectome of C. Elegans?

I am trying to find the entire connectivity matrix for the connectome of the roundworm C. elegans. It is a much studied animal, as it features just a handful of neurons in its nervous system, 302 to ...
3
votes
1answer
3k views

Difference between the cingulate gyrus and the cingulate cortex

I am doing an analysis of the brain of the Creature in Frankenstein by looking at its actions and experiences from a scientific perspective. For this, I was wondering: What is the difference between ...
3
votes
1answer
155 views

How does the intravenous administration of cholecystokinin provoke panic attacks?

Background I recently read a paper (The James-Lange theory of emotions: a critical examination and an alternative theory), in which the James-Lange Theory was challenged by Walter Bradford Cannon. ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

What is the proportion of excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in the feline thalamus?

Is there a scientific reference on the numbers (or proportion) of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the thalamus of the cat?