Questions tagged [neuroanatomy]

For questions regarding specific structures in the central and peripheral nervous systems

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11 views

Noise in Neurons (channel noise)

If you stimulate neurons 10 times with the same electrical pulse, you will get a different response 10 times. For example, if you apply a pulse near the threshold, you may get 7 APs, which are ...
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30 views

How do the outer hair cells amplify the traveling wave?

Depending on the movement frequency, outer hair cells can stretch and contract, amplifying the amplitude of the traveling wave at the basilar membrane. How can they do this exactly? what is the point ...
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Deflection of the basilar membrane

The basilar membrane becomes thicker and heavier from the basal end to the apical upper end - this is why high frequencies are perceived in the lower range and low frequencies in the upper range. But ...
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51 views

Do induced brain wave patterns give the same cognitive and perceptual consequences as those that arise naturally? [duplicate]

What I mean to ask by this particular question is that, are the effects resulting from neural interactions in the brain that cause the emergence of certain behaviours, with the neural frequencies in ...
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Is there a direct correlation between visual intelligence and mathematical intelligence?

For example, are they processed in the same areas of the brain, etc.?
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65 views

What is the cochlear frequency response by number of hair cells?

I am trying to recreate the cochlea/basilar membrane response to sound and want to know how the hair cells are bucketed or binned by frequency, so an ideal list would be something like 10 kHz - 12 kHz:...
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18 views

What is the size limit of molecules entering the intracellular sections of a neuron?

As voltage sensitive organic dyes enter the inside of neurons and quantum dots are seeking to replace these due to their higher quantum yield, I was wondering what the seize limit is, as quantum dot ...
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23 views

Are there equivalent calcium imaging molecules that fluoresce in the presence of neurotransmitters between axons?

Molecules like GCaMP fluoresce when calcium ions attach to them. I was wondering if this can work with the other neurotransmitters in the brain or compounds that transmit signals outside of neurons.
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376 views

What are higher-level and lower-level brain functions?

The human brain can be described as a "Russian nesting doll" in the sense that the most ancient areas of the brain responsible for lower functions are located at its centre while newer ...
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Is there an upper bound on signals ascending from the sensory nerves through the medulla?

I'm starting to go down a research path related to haptic and embodied cognition. Though I haven't taken a deep dive into neuroanatomy (only a 300 level undergrad cognitive neuroscience course's worth ...
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41 views

What is the scope of the study of Neuroanatomy?

I am now trying to understand the scope of the study of neuroanatomy as the discussion in meta surrounding the question Dorsum sellae, tuberculum sellae and sella turcica which of the 3 is referred to ...
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32 views

What is the medullary bulb transition?

Does "medullary bulb transition" make sense in neuroanatomy internattionally or is it a Brazilian invention and there is no term like that in English? What is then the difference of the &...
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What is the size, volume, dimensions etc. of the central lateral nucleus in the anterior intralaminar thalamus in humans?

I have been searching extensively on the internet and journal articles for the size, volume, dimensions, etc. of the central lateral nucleus in the anterior intralaminar thalamus in humans but have ...
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54 views

Can two neurons stimulate each other?

Is it possible that two neurons stimulate each other in an everlasting two neuron circuit?
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What effect does the size of the soma have on firing characteristics?

For example, cells in layer 5 of the neocortex have a larger soma than do other layers. I'm wondering what the functional difference is between smaller and larger soma. On one hand, I can imagine that ...
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31 views

How a signal is generated by the brain when we want to move a body [duplicate]

I've read tons of articles about how moving our bodies is going on. BUT I've found some part of topic just IGNORED. ALL authors just pass the part "our brain generates the signal". I have been trying ...
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46 views

Consistent neuroanatomy coordinates naming

I'm studying brain anatomy but I find coordinates systems are not consistent among books, lecture notes and internet. There are 3 plane directions horizontal coronal sagittal And 6 directions ...
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Functional neuronal units that occupy the same brain region

[Thanks to Bryan Krause's advice, I edited the question.] Definition: Let two functional units be two sets of neurons, A and B, such that the probability of being connected (synaptically or by ...
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34 views

Principles of grouping neurons

This is an overview question. I wonder which principles of grouping neurons into higher units are there, and which principles I have overseen. neurotransmitter systems: all neurons that release or ...
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90 views

How many different synapses can an axon form? How do they differ?

It is estimated that the in the human brain there are about 100 billion neurons. With thousands of synapses for each of them, the total number of synapses is over 100 trillion. Yet each neuron has ...
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26 views

Is the approximation of the Medial Frontal Gyrus in the region of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex?

I'm wondering if the MFG is located in the region considered the DLPFC?
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449 views

Meaning of "projection" and "to project" in neuroscience

What is the exact meaning of the term projection and the verb to project in neuroscience? I haven't found any neuroscience reference book or dictionary that gives a definition, although those terms ...
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Decussation of Cranial Nerves

Which cranial nerves decussate apart from the few nerve fibers of the optic nerve that do and how to easilly remember the cranial nerves that do? Here is a paper for the Trochlear Nerve But I have ...
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1answer
48 views

Cingulate cortex vs Limbic lobe are they same or slightly different?

I've read the wikipedia article on Cingulate cortex and the article about limbic lobe. Also did web search but it is not clear to me whether they are synonymous or there are slight differences in the ...
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Supplementary Motor Area or Juxtapositional Lobule Cortex

Harvard-Oxford Cortical Structural Atlas now calls the 'Supplementary Motor Area' the 'Juxtapositional Lobule Cortex (formerly Supplementary Motor Cortex)'. I've looked for papers that explain the ...
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Myelin and Myelin Sheath

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002261.htm Why is Myelin used as a term to mean the Myelin Sheath as opposed to the proper term? It is apparent to me that Myelin is the substance itself ...
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33 views

How synapses are hold in place if they're not phisically attached?

When two neurons connect to form a synapse, between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic cells some space is found (synaptic cleft). How does this keep in position if there is no physical connection ...
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Upside down, backwards writing [closed]

I am an older adult, who entered college late in life. I came to find out that I have both Dyscalculia, and Dyslexia (formally diagnosed) through great difficulty in college. Not realizing that I had ...
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What happens to the brains that are utilized during studies afterwards?

The procedures may vary from country to country, but I'm wondering if they are cremated or otherwise disintegrated.
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Using neuroscience to study a new organism [closed]

Consider a situation where you discover a new species and of organism. Using research methods of neuroscience or otherwise, how would you go about analyzing the nervous system and the brain of this ...
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2k views

What's the difference between the neuroendocrine system vs endocrine system?

No one in the Biology site seems to be answering this, so I thought I'd post it here as a last resort. I would really appreciate if you guys can take a look at it. This is what I have understood so ...
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1answer
38 views

How are ocular dominance columns monocular despite binocular complex cells?

Orientation columns in the primary visual cortex are known to have (mostly) simple cells in layers 4 and 6, and (mostly) complex cells in layers 2,3 and 5. Orientation columns spanning an entire range ...
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327 views

Unilateral vision in split brain subjects

I am just beginning to learn psychology and came across concept of split brain. I was wondering if a person has only left eye working and has their corpus callosum cut, would they be effectively blind ...
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134 views

Is there a region of the brain that mediates pain in a manner reminiscent of the mesolimbic pathway?

The mesolimbic dopamine pathway is a common neural pathway upon which rewards converge AKA the pleasure pathway. So I am trying to find a comparable pathway in the brain for pain -- is there such a ...
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What introductory textbook is available about the corticostriatal brain circuitry?

I want to understand the basal ganglia better. In particular, I want to understand the role of the corticostriatal brain circuitry for non-motor functions, including emotion and cognition. I have ...
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Are cognitive functions strictly divided in the left and right hemispheres? [duplicate]

I often see this kind of picture, claiming the strict lateralization of brain functions. Is this valid? Then, what happens to left-handed individuals? Are their cognitive functions also switched ...
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128 views

To what extent is face-detection achieved in peripheral vision?

I'm trying to find out to what extent mere detection of faces (i.e. determining that something is a face, as opposed to recognition of specific individuals) is favored in the central vision vs ...
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42 views

Neurogensis in CNS invloves apoptosis of scar cells?

Say there's neurogensis in a brain area that seems to "allow" it, like the Hipocampus, Striatum, and so forth. Does this neurogensis might be preceded in the apoptosis of scar cells, and then, in the ...
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338 views

Calculating brain-part volume percentage?

How is the approximate volume occupied by a brain component calculated? For example, how would you know the approximate brain volume percentage of both hippocampi or both parts of the striatum, or ...
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399 views

What does 'Mean Diffusivity' tell me about the connectivity of cortical areas?

I am reading an article about changes in thalamic volume and connections in relation to age and I understand that thalamic volume decreases with age. The authors find that mean diffusivity (MD) in ...
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78 views

Hypothetical working and function of grandmother cells [closed]

I wonder, if the following model of the working and function of hypothetical grandmother cells is worthy of consideration or not (or if it is even a common view, just differently stated). I assume ...
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What are the names of the white matter tracts in the cortico-ventral basal ganglia circuit?

I am looking at diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. The data are clustered by regions of interest (ROIs). The clusters have locations with names, which I have listed below. Which location names ...
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484 views

Where can I find the connectivity matrix of the connectome of C. Elegans?

I am trying to find the entire connectivity matrix for the connectome of the roundworm C. elegans. It is a much studied animal, as it features just a handful of neurons in its nervous system, 302 to ...
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1answer
213 views

Are all dendrites targeted by an axon, or are there a lot of "empty" dendrites?

As far as I understand, one neuron can have up to 200 000 dendrites (e.g. purkinje cells). As for axons, there can be only one per neuron, which can divide into thousands (but not hundreds of ...
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44 views

Article for bypassing spinal cord after spinal cord injury

This article describes a research that allows a man with spinal cord injury (SCI) at the cervical level to move his finger. A chip was used to circumvent the spinal cord and send signals to the finger ...
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52 views

Direction of electrical information flow in the brain (and output locations) [closed]

I am interested in the general electrical flow through the brain and found this very useful answer highlighting a good amount of it, but what I can't seem get any detailed visuals for on Google ...
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3k views

Difference between the cingulate gyrus and the cingulate cortex

I am doing an analysis of the brain of the Creature in Frankenstein by looking at its actions and experiences from a scientific perspective. For this, I was wondering: What is the difference between ...
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56 views

Books on Neurological functions?

Are there any books anyone can recommend that do not have any or much in the way of prerequisites but go through the anatomy of the central nervous system while laying out in detail the functions of ...
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90 views

Is there a complete connectome of a minicolumn of the neocortex?

I know that there are projects that try to map brain connectivity. My question is whether there is a dataset available with the complete connectivity of just a single minicolumn of the neocortex. ...
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Current estimates of the capacity of hippocampal episodic memory?

Let me preface this by saying I'm as skeptical as anyone about equating neural structures with traditional computing hardware (e.g. 'how many MBs is long term memory?'), but episodic memories seems ...