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Questions tagged [neuroanatomy]

For questions regarding specific structures in the central and peripheral nervous systems

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Using neuroscience to study a new organism [closed]

Consider a situation where you discover a new species and of organism. Using research methods of neuroscience or otherwise, how would you go about analyzing the nervous system and the brain of this ...
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What's the difference between the neuroendocrine system vs endocrine system?

No one in the Biology site seems to be answering this, so I thought I'd post it here as a last resort. I would really appreciate if you guys can take a look at it. This is what I have understood so ...
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How are ocular dominance columns monocular despite binocular complex cells?

Orientation columns in the primary visual cortex are known to have (mostly) simple cells in layers 4 and 6, and (mostly) complex cells in layers 2,3 and 5. Orientation columns spanning an entire range ...
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Unilateral vision in split brain subjects

I am just beginning to learn psychology and came across concept of split brain. I was wondering if a person has only left eye working and has their corpus callosum cut, would they be effectively blind ...
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Is there a region of the brain that mediates pain in a manner reminiscent of the mesolimbic pathway?

The mesolimbic dopamine pathway is a common neural pathway upon which rewards converge AKA the pleasure pathway. So I am trying to find a comparable pathway in the brain for pain -- is there such a ...
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What introductory textbook is available about the corticostriatal brain circuitry?

I want to understand the basal ganglia better. In particular, I want to understand the role of the corticostriatal brain circuitry for non-motor functions, including emotion and cognition. I have ...
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Are cognitive functions strictly divided in the left and right hemispheres? [duplicate]

I often see this kind of picture, claiming the strict lateralization of brain functions. Is this valid? Then, what happens to left-handed individuals? Are their cognitive functions also switched ...
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To what extent is face-detection achieved in peripheral vision?

I'm trying to find out to what extent mere detection of faces (i.e. determining that something is a face, as opposed to recognition of specific individuals) is favored in the central vision vs ...
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Neurogensis in CNS invloves apoptosis of scar cells?

Say there's neurogensis in a brain area that seems to "allow" it, like the Hipocampus, Striatum, and so forth. Does this neurogensis might be preceded in the apoptosis of scar cells, and then, in the ...
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95 views

Calculating brain-part volume percentage?

How is the approximate volume occupied by a brain component calculated? For example, how would you know the approximate brain volume percentage of both hippocampi or both parts of the striatum, or ...
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148 views

What does 'Mean Diffusivity' tell me about the connectivity of cortical areas?

I am reading an article about changes in thalamic volume and connections in relation to age and I understand that thalamic volume decreases with age. The authors find that mean diffusivity (MD) in ...
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Hypothetical working and function of grandmother cells [closed]

I wonder, if the following model of the working and function of hypothetical grandmother cells is worthy of consideration or not (or if it is even a common view, just differently stated). I assume ...
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What are the names of the white matter tracts in the cortico-ventral basal ganglia circuit?

I am looking at diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. The data is clustered by regions of interest (ROIs). The clusters have locations with names, which I have listed below. Which location names ...
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Where can I find the connectivity matrix of the connectome of C. Elegans?

I am trying to find the entire connectivity matrix for the connectome of the roundworm C. elegans. It is a much studied animal, as it features just a handful of neurons in its nervous system, 302 to ...
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1answer
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Are all dendrites targeted by an axon, or are there a lot of “empty” dendrites?

As far as I understand, one neuron can have up to 200 000 dendrites (e.g. purkinje cells). As for axons, there can be only one per neuron, which can divide into thousands (but not hundreds of ...
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Article for bypassing spinal cord after spinal cord injury

This article describes a research that allows a man with spinal cord injury (SCI) at the cervical level to move his finger. A chip was used to circumvent the spinal cord and send signals to the finger ...
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Direction of electrical information flow in the brain (and output locations) [closed]

I am interested in the general electrical flow through the brain and found this very useful answer highlighting a good amount of it, but what I can't seem get any detailed visuals for on Google ...
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Difference between the cingulate gyrus and the cingulate cortex

I am doing an analysis of the brain of the Creature in Frankenstein by looking at its actions and experiences from a scientific perspective. For this, I was wondering: What is the difference between ...
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Books on Neurological functions?

Are there any books anyone can recommend that do not have any or much in the way of prerequisites but go through the anatomy of the central nervous system while laying out in detail the functions of ...
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Is there a complete connectome of a minicolumn of the neocortex?

I know that there are projects that try to map brain connectivity. My question is whether there is a dataset available with the complete connectivity of just a single minicolumn of the neocortex. ...
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Current estimates of the capacity of hippocampal episodic memory?

Let me preface this by saying I'm as skeptical as anyone about equating neural structures with traditional computing hardware (e.g. 'how many MBs is long term memory?'), but episodic memories seems ...
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How does the intravenous administration of cholecystokinin provoke panic attacks?

Background I recently read a paper (The James-Lange theory of emotions: a critical examination and an alternative theory), in which the James-Lange Theory was challenged by Walter Bradford Cannon. ...
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What does it mean when we say that “a neuron connects to a certain cortical layer”?

For example, if we say "a neuron connects to Layer V of the cortex", does it mean it synapses inside layer V, or does it imply that the soma of the neuron it synapses to is in Layer V (and it could ...
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What is the proportion of excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in the feline thalamus?

Is there a scientific reference on the numbers (or proportion) of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the thalamus of the cat?
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What is the function of the connection between the two halves of the thalamus?

What kind of direct exchange do we have between the two halves of the thalamus, whether going through the thalamic adhesion or not? Do we know what parts of left and right thalamus are connected and ...
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Is the ordering of Brodmann areas arbitrary?

A single Brodmann area is defined based off cellular composition. Are the Brodmann areas ordinal, and if so for what reason? (e.g. is there something that makes Brodmann area 1 the "first one", and ...
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How far can a signal travel in the neocortex without passing through the white matter?

Correct me if I am wrong please, from what I understand horizontal communication spans very short distance in all layers of the neocortex but layers I and II. In these two layers dendrites and axons ...
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Where is motor skill function located within the brain?

Does the neural activity that correlates with motor skill function tend to be focused near or far from the outer surface of the brain, or both? And what about perception? My deeper curiosity being: I'...
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Can two neurons in the brain be connected more than once?

Can two given neurons in the human brain can be directly connected more than once, either mutually or in the same or direction? Also, can the same neuron have transitive connections to itself (in ...
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2answers
132 views

Are axons in the brain weighted?

Is it known whether the connection strength of synapses is important to the functioning of the brain or does just the binary existence of a synapse matter? Also, how widely do the strengths of ...
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1answer
49 views

Where are intrinsically bursting neurons found in the mammalian brain?

There are neurons in the brain that exhibit bursting behaviour. In some cases, this is due to interactions with the surrounding neural network. In other cases, it is due to intrinsic biological ...
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1answer
202 views

Is neuroplasticity limited to the cerebral cortex in the brain?

In this question, I am defining neuroplasticity as being the creation of new connections between neurons. I'm aware that there is a high degree of neuroplasticity in the cortex and that new ...
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Where is neurogenesis absent/uncommon in the human brain? [duplicate]

I know that neurogenesis is an integral part of hippocampus, however are there parts of the brain where neurogenesis never or rarely happens? I'm assuming that any part of the brain stem does not have ...
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What is the general frequency (or range of frequencies) of “sparks” in the human brain per minute and at what locations? [closed]

How many electrical sparks occur in the brain, on average, per minute and at what structures do they occur? For the "how many" figure, I would be happy to have ranges here from relaxed to excited ...
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1answer
399 views

Is the hypothalamus part of the limbic system?

I believe the hypothalamus is involved in control of appetite and defensive and reproductive behaviours, which are functions of the limbic system, and according to this website http://webspace.ship....
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273 views

Brain anatomy- hippocampus and amygdala positions

I'm trying to teach myself about the structure of the brain and am slightly confused as to whether the hippocampus and amygdala are parts of the temporal lobe or whether they are just parts of the ...
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1answer
94 views

Why is Wernike's area of the brain called Wernike's area?

My teacher told us that this area of the brain helps with the comprehension of language and it is located in the temporal lobe of the cortex, but she never told us why is was called Wernike's area and ...
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125 views

Are the language and sound centres of the brain in the same area?

I am an English major currently taking a Psycholinguistics module. One of the things we learned is that speech perception is handled differently from non-speech sound perception. Our brain is trained ...
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Let's say I have an MRI scan of my brain. What exactly can I learn from it? [closed]

Asking this because I participated in an MRI study today at my local University, and the compensation will be an emailed 'picture of my brain'. Note that I intend this question to be catered towards ...
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Does adult neurogenesis occur only in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus?

The scholarpedia article on this subject says: Adult neurogenesis is the process of generating new neurons which integrate into existing circuits after fetal and early postnatal development has ...
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Are the human cerebral hemispheres only connected via the corpus callosum?

Are the human cerebral hemispheres only connected via the corpus callosum? Or is there any other structure for interaction between the left and right hemispheres?
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1answer
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How does it come about that specific areas of the brain are associated with specific functions?

During the development of the human brain, specific areas come to perform specific functions. How (and when) does this differentiation come about? Presumably, some areas of the brain naturally take ...
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Why is the order of white/grey matter different in the brain and spinal cord?

In the brain proper, grey matter forms the outer layer of the brain, and white matter forms the inner layer. In the spine, this is reversed: white matter forms the outer layer of the spine, and grey ...
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1answer
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Are brain sub-divisions based off embryonic development used when describing mature brains?

Are the terms for brain divisions based off of embryonic development (e.g. prosencephalon, diencephalon) used for mature brain divisions? (e.g. forebrain, interbrain). For example, would it be wrong ...
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How similar are the brains of twins?

I am currently reading undergraduate essays on biological dysfunction and schizophrenia. The students put a lot of weight in the fact that studies of monozygotic twins show only a 50% rate of ...
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1answer
284 views

What are the neural substrates of retrieval induced forgetting?

Retrieval-induced effects It is well known that practicing retrieval of remembered items increases the probability of correctly recalling that item in future tests: the testing effect. Retrieval-...
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How does de-myelination occur in multiple sclerosis? [closed]

From what I understand, only the oligodendrocytes are affected in multiple sclerosis, and they are attacked by T cells which cross the blood-brain barrier. This leads me to two questions: How is the ...
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291 views

What are the brain regions related to tinnitus shown in this figure?

I am interested in learning about the neural mechanisms behind tinnitus, and was wondering if someone could help me to name the parts of the brain on this image that show increased activity in ...
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Which areas of the brain make up the brain stem?

I am trying to learn the anatomy of the brain and am getting rather confused. When it comes to the brain stem, I have seen some sources say that it consists of the midbrain (mesencephalon) and ...
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Which area of the brain was first correctly associated with a specific function?

I have read on this website that Broca's area was the first area of the brain to be associated correctly with a specific function, in that case language. But I couldn't find any other source for the ...