Questions tagged [neuro-transmitters]

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Why do SSRIs take multiple weeks to reach their full effect?

What is it about SSRIs that they require 2-4 weeks for their long-term effect to become present? Is this the result of small accumulations over time in some aspect of the brain? Are there other ...
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1 answer
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How does acute tryptophan depletion work?

The literature online about this practice is very poor. The theory goes like this: A mix of amino acids that does not include tryptophan will lower the proportion of tryptophan in the bloodstream. ...
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Why are there different neurotransmitters in central nervous system?

If an effect of binding the neurotransmitter depends on the receptor type, not the neurotransmitter itself, then why don't we have just one neurotransmitter and many different receptors?
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What are the pharmacodynamics (Ki nM) of the monoamine neurotransmitters?

Ok, so any psychoactive drug will have different affinities for different receptor types. For instance, sertraline has an extreme affinity for the SERT and very little affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor....
4 votes
2 answers
68 views

How can the action of drugs be determined by so few neurotransmitters?

It seems that there is a huge variety of mind-altering drugs with unique mental characteristics in terms of qualitative experience, yet the action of drugs is frequently explained as being the result ...
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Does the increase (i.e. more positive) of an equilibrium potential always cause the membrane potential to increase (i.e. the cell depolarizes)?

I am a little bit confused. I know that for potassium, when less ions are going down the concentration gradient, Ek increases and the neuron becomes depolarized. However, I am also aware that if Ena ...
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Do neurons have a single transmitters vesicle per synapse they have?

Do neurons have a single transmitters vesicle per synapse they have? So when they will be activated, each transmitter vesicle is going to one synapse. Or is it that neurons release some amount of ...
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How do neurons know where to send transmitters?

If a single neuron can have thousands of synapses with other neurons, how do each neuron "knows" to which further neuron to send transmitters? i.e. selectivity
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Is there a mechanical/vibrational communication method between pre- and post-synaptic terminals in addition to chemical and electrical synapses?

I recall hearing something about there being a mechanical way that two neurons can communicate with each other in addition to the chemical and electrical synapse methods. Something about a certain ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Aesthetic pleasure hormone or neurotransmitter

When a human watched a beautiful painting, a beautiful animation, sees a beautiful nature scene what hormone or neurotransmitter is produced in the organism that he feels the aesthetic pleasure? ...
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1 answer
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Causality regarding neurotransmitter imbalance and depression

Neurotransmitter imbalances are blamed for various psychiatric conditions (depression, ADHD, etc). Clearly plasma levels of neurotransmitters are confirmed to be abnormal in some people with such ...
2 votes
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What determines whether a monoamine neurotransmitter is recycled or broken down by MAO?

When a neurotransmitter detaches from the receptor and is returned to the neuron via the transporter, what are the primary factors that influence whether that molecule is re-stored in a vesicle by ...
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How does the body respond to having excess levels of neuronal, not synaptic, serotonin?

If a person consumes large amounts of 5-HTP or SAM-e resulting in elevated serotonin levels in their synaptic vesicles, how is this excess offloaded? What is the average rate of clearance? All the ...
3 votes
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What can happen if a human takes SB-243213?

SB-243213 acts as a selective inverse agonist for the 5-HT2C receptor. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of many 5-HT receptors which are receptors that bind serotonin, and seems to play a major role in ...
2 votes
1 answer
99 views

Neurotransmitters by neuron types

I'm looking for a concise overview table of all types of neurons (whose number is at least in the hundreds) indicating which neurotransmitters they use pre- and post-synaptically (of which there are ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Triptans and SSRIs

When talking about triptans used for migraines such as Zolimitriptan, such drugs are selective serotonin receptor agonists. SSRIs, as their function states, are Selective Serotonin Reuptake ...
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1 vote
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How is a memory lost?

Firstly, I have an incredibly rudimentary understanding of how neurons interact etc. My understanding of memory representation is that it's a group of interconnected neurons that fire in some ...
2 votes
1 answer
27 views

Why seemingly all the neuronal membrane-bound receptor are exclusively GPCR or highly homologous to GPCR family?

Nicotinic AchR is known for long to be an ion channel receptor however it has been argued whether it is a GPCR, as well Muscarinic AchR is known to be GPCR. Seemingly many other nerve cell bound ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Do psychiatrists and researchers themselves don't have an idea how antidepressants work?

This question may be seen as an extension of my previous question, here. I was talking to a person online where s/he mentioned that psychiatrists themselves don't have an idea as to how SSRIs work. ...
1 vote
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446 views

Why does venlafaxine have lower incidence of sexual dysfunctions at higher doses?

Venlafaxine at low dosages strongly inhibits serotonin, at moderate dosages also norepinephrine and only high dosages it also inhibits dopamine. The ratio is the following. serotonin : ...
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When someone consumes finasteride, what happens neurophysiologically and what mental functions / faculties are altered?

Finasteride is a medication used to treat androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness) and enlarged prostates. Reported side effects include male breast enlargement, lowered sex drive, and headaches (...
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1 answer
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Is Dr. Russo’s “endocannabinoid deficiency” a valid theory?

There was a study published in Neuro Endocrinology Letters by Dr. Ethan Russo in 2004 that says many diseases being treated with cannabis correlate with an “endocannabinoid deficiency”, but I cannot ...
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1 answer
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Does the act of neural-repair fire off neurons?

Disclaimer: I'm not well educated in this field, just a random curious person. I don't know anything about neural repair save that it happens while we sleep. Anyways, the question is pretty simple: ...
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experimental tracking and treating bipolar disorder

Is there a way to measure what neurotransmitters (and in what amount) are present in a person via blood or other method? I feel like if such information was available there could be experiments ...
4 votes
1 answer
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Are inhibitory synapses governed by different chemicals than excitatory synapses?

If a neuron has both excitatory and inhibitory chemical synapses providing it with input, is it true in all organisms that the chemicals that cause the inhibition are distinct from those that cause ...
4 votes
1 answer
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Does consumption of amino acid supplements improve human executive function and self-regulation in ADHD cases?

Based on my understanding, executive function primarily takes place in the frontal lobes. Inzlicht and Gutsell found that exhaustion in mental tasks shows itself in decreased activity in the anterior ...
1 vote
2 answers
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Is the amount of learning modulated by reward transmitters?

The human brain is a signal processing system. Input streams contain sensory, motor, reward and possibly more signals mixed. I wonder if neuro transmitters associated with reward increase or decrease ...
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What causes dopamine in our body [closed]

I was curious as to know what are the natural causes for the secretion of dopamine in our body. Are there any specific foods that increases the dopamine level? It is said that dopamine are usually ...
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Which parts of the brain are affected by dopamine?

Does dopamine spread and interact across the whole brain? If not, which areas are affected most and which least?
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1 answer
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How do neuro transmitters interact with neurons in the brain?

I think emotions and hormones frames the overall thinking processes of the brain. However, I'm interested in how this works on a neuronal level. For example, dopamine is some kind of reward signal for ...
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5 votes
2 answers
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Are there specific neurotransmitters for specific sensations?

Nerves can detect pressure, temperature, light (eyes), sound, friction- at least. Does each sensation have its own neurotransmitter? I'm only a little familiar with neurotransmitters. This page ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Does smoking counterbalance the effect of Belladonna?

Atropine, the main ingredient of Belladona, is the stuff that makes you dump, by blocking the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Would smoking or applying a nicotine patch, by ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Are there studies on the effect of nicotine patches on dream vividness and dream recall?

Acetylcholine plays an important role during REM Sleep. I cite an answer to the question "Why do dreams lose clarity quickly over time after we awaken?": Activity in the PFC during sleep may be ...
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21 votes
4 answers
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Is serotonin conclusively linked to depression?

Some highlights from the article "The Depressing News about Anti-Depressants": ever since a seminal study in 1998, whose findings were reinforced by landmark research in The Journal of the ...
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2 answers
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How do SSRIs work?

I've found a reasonable explanation on Wikipedia... SSRIs are believed to increase the extracellular level of the neurotransmitter serotonin by inhibiting its reuptake into the presynaptic cell, ...
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