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Questions tagged [neural-network]

For questions about the function and structure of both biological and artificial neural networks (ANNs), and for the applications of ANNs to modeling in cognitive science.

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Do people still use ACT-R?

A lot of computational cognitive scientists seem to be working on Neural nets (mostly vision scientists), Reinforcement learning (mostly decision making people) and Bayesian Inferences. I could hardly ...
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Is there a biological equivalent to the bias term used in artificial neural networks?

For the longest time, I had been thinking that the bias term used in the standard artificial neural network model (the ubiquitous one used in most machine learning implementations) can be interpreted ...
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1answer
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Are there animals with only excitatory neurons?

Are there animals with only excitatory neurons? I am not sure it is possible. Also, maybe excitation/inhibition can become relative? I however will be happy to read your opinion.. For example, are ...
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1answer
47 views

What is the difference between principal neurons and pyramidal cells?

I am reading Kandel's "Principals of Neural Sciences". There the book sometimes refers to excitatory neurons as principal cells, and sometimes as pyramidal cells. Can anyone tell me the difference? ...
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Training adjustments of synaptic Weights [closed]

I'm a graduate student in the Electrical Engineering Program currently working on my thesis and I have to figure out how to train synaptic weights in an Artificial Neural Network either analogously or ...
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2answers
178 views

The computer model of the brain

I am a computer programmer or computer engineer, and am interested in comparing the brain to a classical computer in some way. How well does this comparison hold up? This is a general introduction ...
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35 views

Convolutional Operations in the Visual Cortex

One of the fundamental operations in image neural networks is the operation of convolution, where a filter slides across the receptive field, activating on particular features. This is incredibly ...
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1answer
153 views

Why is Biological plausibility in Machine Learning important?

I have found that many authors of machine learning papers, that employ the Hebbian learning rule, refer to the biological plausibility of it, as one of the arguments to use it instead of the well ...
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25 views

Task-based vs task-positive networks

Do the terms "task-positive network" and "task-based network" refer to the same thing, such as the Fronto-Parietal Control Network (FPCN), as distinct from the task-negative networks such as the ...
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2answers
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Does the brain's architecture change while growing up?

If we are somehow able to record and store all the neural connection in the brain of a child and also the brain of the same individual when he is old will there be difference between the two ? Is the ...
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1answer
103 views

Question concerning Jeff Hawkins' On Intelligence

In 2004 Jeff Hawkins' book On Intelligence was widely praised. But Hawkins made some claims about artificial neural networks that seem (to me) untenable today, only 13 years later. He gives the ...
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Serializing and deserializing stable states of Hopfield networks

I am looking for simple artificial neural networks that may perform the following serializing task. Consider two identical Hopfield networks, one being at rest, the other being in a stable state of ...
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How will brain-computer interfacing work? [duplicate]

I have just been reading about Elon Musks new company Neuralink. He claims that it is possible to increase the communication speed between humans and computers by using direct brain interfaces which ...
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What neural mechanism is responsible for our identification with a group? [closed]

Why do we need to identify ourselves with a group? Is there naturally a hormone/neurotransmiter reward? Or is it based on more complex mechanisms like finding the "deeper" meanings of our actions?
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What is the basic memory-making algorithm? [closed]

What are the fundamental criteria that determine the hierarchy of saved information in the brain? I've discovered that our languages reflect some of those factors. One of them can be sex ...
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4answers
625 views

What role do circular network structures play in neural networks?

I'm developing small virtual neural networks and for the most part, the networks have remained feed-forward. When I create circular structures, it becomes a challenge to find a balance with the neural ...
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1answer
91 views

Delay time of Tansmiitting the information from one neuron to another

Inside the brain the electrical signals are transmitted from one neuron to another by using special chemicals, called "neurotransmitters" from the axon terminals. Can anyone tell me approximate value ...
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2answers
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How is the biological error signal in predictive coding computed?

I am quite inspired by the results obtained by PredNet, which implements a predictive coding model using artificial neural networks. They compute the prediction error as a simple subtraction, and then ...
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How to connect two networks in NEURON software? [closed]

So my goal is to connect STN and SNc neurons by giving synaptic weights and then see the response. I have already modelled STN and SNc separately and observed their response. I need help with the ...
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3answers
218 views

What is the difference between attractor and recurrent network?

How are attractor and recurrent networks related? Is attractor network is private case of recurrent? Is there a mathematical formalism that defines both rigorously as graphs?
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1answer
142 views

Is neurogenesis driven by prediction error?

Various Deep Learning algorithms [1] and neural models [2] make use of neurogenesis to reduce prediction errors. How much evidence is there that neurogenesis is driven by prediction error or novel ...
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1answer
62 views

Searching for real biological neuron firing data [numeric] [closed]

I am searching for real neuron firing data, so I can look at each neuron for fire timing (frequency) and incoming/outgoing signal-strength. I already found short youtube videos of real neuron firing ...
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3answers
1k views

Is back-prop biologically plausible?

One of the common criticisms of Deep Learning is it's training algorithms, back-propagation of error (back-prop), has no biologically plausible implementation, despite evidence of something like it ...
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1answer
134 views

Biological plausibility of RBMs

How biologically plausible are Restricted Bolztmann Machines (RBMs) and their stacked equivalent Deep Belief Networks (DBNs)? I know that Deep Learning (DL) in general isn't considered biologically ...
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1answer
291 views

Function of heart neural network?

I have found articles the try to give a possible biological neural network for the movement of limbs, neurons in the eyes, etc. Is there an explanation on how the neural network that controls the ...
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2answers
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What does it mean when we say that “a neuron connects to a certain cortical layer”?

For example, if we say "a neuron connects to Layer V of the cortex", does it mean it synapses inside layer V, or does it imply that the soma of the neuron it synapses to is in Layer V (and it could ...
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3answers
596 views

Are there neural loops within a column or an area of the cortex?

Neuronal networks can make loops because a neuron has a direction (from dendrite to axon). What's the smallest area in the cortex where we can find a loop and what are these loops? I understand ...
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4answers
232 views

“Nested Neurons”: Are they biologically plausible?

Is there any evidence for neurons existing within other neurons in humans or other organisms? From what little I've learned about physical neuroscience while learning to build neural nets, I don't see ...
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1answer
157 views

Can a sufficiently complex ANN simulate consciousness? [closed]

Current Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are capable of doing variational inference and learning representations and factors to explain the inputs, the outside world. When the network gets bigger ...
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95 views

Can human brain neural circuits understand the concept of “other human beings” and their motives?

I've read that one of the tests of animal intelligence is whether or not the animal recognizes itself in the mirror or can determine that other animals have motives other than it's own (ex: can ...
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1answer
146 views

Is a network of neurons the only factor in memory?

Background I'm actually writing a science fiction novel set a couple decades in the future. Brains are not my field. I've done as much research as I could. In the story, the protagonist finds out he ...
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1answer
196 views

Other emotions relative to angry/happy base emotions

In my layman's experience, I'm vaguely aware there are four base emotions: happy, sad, afraid/surprised, and angry/disgusted.1 Some background: We're training an AI to learn the difference between ...
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1answer
293 views

What is the relationship between visual attention network and visual stream (Two-streams hypothesis)?

There are two visual attention networks proposed by Maurizio Corbetta and Gordon L. Shulman (2002). These are top-down and bottom-up attention networks. One system, which includes parts of the ...
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1answer
1k views

Information storage capacity of a neural network?

I seem to remember reading about some equation that states the amount of information that can be held by a neural network with n neurons in it arranged in l layers, or something vaguely like that (n ...
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104 views

Do adversarial neural networks exist in the brain?

A recent development in Artificial Neural Networks for machine learning applications is the use of Adversarial Networks (see this paper for an example). Adversarial Networks is a network architecture ...
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1answer
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Do STDP synapses potentiate AND depress at the same time?

Do STDP synapses potentiate and depress at the same time? Consider the following scenario where two cells are connected by an STDP synapse: PRE and POST. PRE cell fires two action potentials 2 ms ...
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1answer
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Is the Resting Potential and Action Potential Thresholds the same across all neurons in a network?

Does the action potential and resting potential of a given neuron differ from another neuron within the same network or is it constant? If not what determines and affects these potentials and can they ...
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120 views

How does the hippocampus and the “Papez” circuit form a memory?

It is admitted the hippocampus is necessary to the formation of new long term memories. At first, information goes back and forth between various parts of the cortex and the hippocampus. That's how a ...
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1answer
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What is the purpose of dead end neurons in this diagram?

I was reading over some sources about ANNs, and here I found this diagram of a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN, the source calls it a feedback neural network). I noticed that a few neurons in this ...
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1answer
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Can training on neural networks be selectively undone?

Say that you've trained a network with a set of training data comprising of data points A,B,C, and D. Can the effect of, say, point B on the network be undone without also losing the training from ...
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1answer
120 views

What does “Convolutional” signify in “Convolutional Neural Network”?

The "Types of Neural Networks" wiki page doesn't even have the word "convolution" in it, and yet there's an entire Javascript library based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). So, what makes ...
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1answer
88 views

A question on synapses

we are looking into running simulations of the nervous system of C. Elegans. It is believed by most people that the worm's nervous system encodes information through graded potentials and/or plateau ...
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4answers
121 views

What are the rules that govern neuron behavior?

This is what I know so far: Neurons are nodes with a number called the threshold. Neurons are connected to other neurons through directed axons. Axons take the signals produced by neurons and ...
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1answer
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How far can a signal travel in the neocortex without passing through the white matter?

Correct me if I am wrong please, from what I understand horizontal communication spans very short distance in all layers of the neocortex but layers I and II. In these two layers dendrites and axons ...
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1answer
105 views

Do direct cortical pathways exist in the visual system, or do they all go via the thalamus?

Do visual cortical signals always go back and forth between the thalamus, or other subcortical structures, or can they travel directly from one region in the cortex to another?
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1answer
61 views

During synchronized waves oscillation (alpha beta etc…) do neurons fire only once for each wave cycle?

Or can they fire few times then pause and again, firefew times and pause periodically? If the second case happens then do we know if the neurons that fire in synchronity fire the same number of ...
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How can higher concepts get unrolled with upward and feedback connections differing?

In the neocortex, input patterns are compressed hierarchically. Sensory inputs in the lower levels are combined by higher levels to form abstract concepts. However, there are even more feedback ...
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2answers
118 views

Understanding neuronal firing in the context of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity

When discussing Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity in neurons, when we say that a neuron fires do we mean it fires only one spike? Or do we still say "the neuron has fired" when a train of n spikes was ...
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1answer
113 views

How can neuronal networks with local learning rules predict their future inputs?

Local learning rules like Contrastive Hebbian Learning, XCAL, etc. are based on the idea of strengthening edges when the neurons they connect fire simultaneously. This causes frequent patterns in the ...
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339 views

Is there a neural network model of Pavlovian Learning?

I am trying to find a computer simulation of Pavlovian learning. i.e. an action such as salivation in response to a stimulus such as a bell ringing. Most neural network models I've seen seem to be ...