Questions tagged [neural-network]

For questions about the function and structure of both biological and artificial neural networks (ANNs), and for the applications of ANNs to modeling in cognitive science.

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Update of feedback connections in brain

A recent paper by Lillicrap revisits the connection between deep learning models and brain and its biological plausibility. In their work, they show that it is possible to learn with fixed feedback ...
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What does "all-or-nothing" means in spiking neural network?

I'm reading a paper by Auge et al. (2021). In the introduction they said "Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) use short 'all-or-nothing' pulses to encode and transmit information". I'm not sure ...
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How do we know that neurons are the only cells involved in cognitive computation?

I am an undergraduate studying pure mathematics taking a class on computational neuroscience. My default lens for looking at the brain is in terms of universal computation (in the Turing machine sense)...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Does the brain send signals continuously to muscles during movement?

If I make one swift movement with my arm, like just raising it, is my brain continuously sending signals throughout the whole movement? Or does it just send signals one time? The latter seems to make ...
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What are the values of the absolute intracellular and absolute extracellular potentials in a neuron?

Most texts on neurons give the value of the membrane potential and do not state the absolute values of the intracellular and extracellular potentials in a neuron. I understand that this is because the ...
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Difference in neural activity of a thought vs. a memory

I want to understand the difference in neural activity between a "thought" and a "memory impression". Is it a "thought" while the neural activity is present in working ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the actual interpretation of the "correlation of a connection between neurons"?

I am student of Mathematics who is currently studying the utility of Algebraic Topology in the field of Neuroscience. In the paper I am reading (Reimann et al 2017) the authors explain that for ...
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Using Vagus Nerve Stimulation to treat Depression

I came across an article written recently concerning the use of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) to treat difficult-to-treat depression (DTD) and other mood disorders (Sackeim, et al. 2020). However, ...
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Neural oscillations and activity patterns

Both single neurons and groups of neurons can generate oscillatory activity spontaneously. In addition, they may show oscillatory responses to perceptual input or motor output. Even memory and ...
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Can the human brain be simulated by a computer?

There is a Wikipedia page on brain simulation, but: Question: Could there be (experimental) evidence that the (human) brain cannot be simulated by a computer? Note that the Wikipedia page Mind ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Rate of Change in Neural Plasticity

I read that children brain has more neural plasticity compared to adults, with the possible explanation as appeared in this question, pertaining to synaptic changes, where if you learn something, the ...
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From the following paragraph, why would the input or the initial condition not matter in the output?

On pg.37 of “Principles of Neural Science,” they state that “...in systems with feedback circuits it is the dynamic activity of the system that determines the outcome of computation, not inputs or ...
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2 votes
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Biological Neural Network Modification to Unlearn Understandings

Lets assume that a person grows up thinking that religion X is true religion. So he builds up a profile in ones head and when notion of religion X appears the neurons that is related are fired, giving ...
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2 votes
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Single neuron dominates for all input patterns using STDP in simple LIF SNN

I have been reading latley on SNN and decided to try and implement myself some simple simulation. So I wrote a simple MATLAB simulation using simple LIF current based model and I try using STDP to ...
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1 vote
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Connectome Datasets Related to Consciousness

I am a mathematics student currently looking for connectome datasets specifically related to consciousness research. I have mainly looked at the following sites: https://neurodata.io/ https://db....
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2 votes
1 answer
477 views

Is using tensorflow for Spiking neural networks a "good" idea?

I recently started working with Spiking Neural Networks and was hoping for some input from others. I saw there were many libraries/platforms specifically made for working with SNN's (Brian, PyNN, ...
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6 votes
1 answer
435 views

Why is the occipital lobe behind instead of in front?

These are regions of our brain: Our eyes are in front below our forehead, however, the visual area Occipital Lobe is behind. Are there any biological reasons for this? why shouldn't Occipital Lobe be ...
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Testing Multilayer Perceptron [closed]

The following script is from Trappenberg's Fundamentals of Computational Neuroscience and is used to test a perceptron's robustness against noise. However, how would one alter it to test the output ...
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How many axons and dendrites are entering and exiting human male internal urethral sphincter? [closed]

As I know, this information is not available yet. If indeed it is not available, this question may wait for future answers. I have known out that some parts of human connectome are already mapped, so ...
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Decussation of Cranial Nerves

Which cranial nerves decussate apart from the few nerve fibers of the optic nerve that do and how to easilly remember the cranial nerves that do? Here is a paper for the Trochlear Nerve But I have ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Are neurons the wrong shape to model neural networks?

Looking at neural networks, each node can be described as a neuron with either several long input wires, or several long output wires. A neuron, however, has many short input wires (dendrites) and a ...
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ML/Neuroscience: TensorFlow vs PyTorch vs Keras for bulding NN models of the nervous system?

I would be very grateful to people with experience in using neural network models in neuroscience for advice! What approach would you recommend for building neural networks? I am choosing between ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Myelin and Myelin Sheath

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002261.htm Why is Myelin used as a term to mean the Myelin Sheath as opposed to the proper term? It is apparent to me that Myelin is the substance itself ...
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4 votes
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What is the state of the art on the wiring optimisation problem?

One of the earliest neuroscientists, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, postulated that brains are arranged to minimise wire length [1]. In [1] Dmitri Chklovskii and Charles Stevens formulate this problem as ...
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1 vote
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Hypotheses about neural coding and neural correlates of concepts and reasoning - at the level of neurons and synapses

Are there some hypotheses about neural coding of language, concepts and logical reasoning in the brain, about neural correlates of thoughts? When I search the books, then I find lot of books about ...
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Is the visual cortex of a newborn baby immediately capable of object detection or is this skill learned over time, and if so, how?

Is the visual cortex of newborn babies right off the bat capable of making sense of raw visual data, for instance, converting the constant stream of raw RGB images perceived by the eyes into a ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Simulating Hudgkin Huxley neural network

I'm starting work on a computational neuroscience project where I want to create my own model of a spiking Hodgkin-Huxley neuron and connect many instances (about 400) of this model through synapses. ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
117 views

Why can't human thoughts be stored in metals?

As metals are good conductors of electricity and they can be charged by the electrical activity of thoughts, why can't human thoughts be stored in metals? Why thoughts cannot be stored in the form of ...
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1 answer
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Do people still use ACT-R?

A lot of computational cognitive scientists seem to be working on Neural nets (mostly vision scientists), Reinforcement learning (mostly decision making people) and Bayesian Inferences. I could hardly ...
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2 votes
1 answer
155 views

Is there a biological equivalent to the bias term used in artificial neural networks?

For the longest time, I had been thinking that the bias term used in the standard artificial neural network model (the ubiquitous one used in most machine learning implementations) can be interpreted ...
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2 votes
1 answer
62 views

Are there animals with only excitatory neurons?

Are there animals with only excitatory neurons? I am not sure it is possible. Also, maybe excitation/inhibition can become relative? I however will be happy to read your opinion.. For example, are ...
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3 votes
1 answer
887 views

What is the difference between principal neurons and pyramidal cells?

I am reading Kandel's "Principals of Neural Sciences". There the book sometimes refers to excitatory neurons as principal cells, and sometimes as pyramidal cells. Can anyone tell me the difference? ...
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Training adjustments of synaptic Weights [closed]

I'm a graduate student in the Electrical Engineering Program currently working on my thesis and I have to figure out how to train synaptic weights in an Artificial Neural Network either analogously or ...
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13 votes
2 answers
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The computer model of the brain

I am a computer programmer or computer engineer, and am interested in comparing the brain to a classical computer in some way. How well does this comparison hold up? This is a general introduction ...
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Convolutional Operations in the Visual Cortex

One of the fundamental operations in image neural networks is the operation of convolution, where a filter slides across the receptive field, activating on particular features. This is incredibly ...
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1 answer
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Why is Biological plausibility in Machine Learning important?

I have found that many authors of machine learning papers, that employ the Hebbian learning rule, refer to the biological plausibility of it, as one of the arguments to use it instead of the well ...
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Task-based vs task-positive networks

Do the terms "task-positive network" and "task-based network" refer to the same thing, such as the Fronto-Parietal Control Network (FPCN), as distinct from the task-negative networks such as the ...
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Does the brain's architecture change while growing up?

If we are somehow able to record and store all the neural connection in the brain of a child and also the brain of the same individual when he is old will there be difference between the two ? Is the ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Question concerning Jeff Hawkins' On Intelligence

In 2004 Jeff Hawkins' book On Intelligence was widely praised. But Hawkins made some claims about artificial neural networks that seem (to me) untenable today, only 13 years later. He gives the ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Serializing and deserializing stable states of Hopfield networks

I am looking for simple artificial neural networks that may perform the following serializing task. Consider two identical Hopfield networks, one being at rest, the other being in a stable state of ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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How will brain-computer interfacing work? [duplicate]

I have just been reading about Elon Musks new company Neuralink. He claims that it is possible to increase the communication speed between humans and computers by using direct brain interfaces which ...
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What neural mechanism is responsible for our identification with a group? [closed]

Why do we need to identify ourselves with a group? Is there naturally a hormone/neurotransmiter reward? Or is it based on more complex mechanisms like finding the "deeper" meanings of our actions?
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What is the basic memory-making algorithm? [closed]

What are the fundamental criteria that determine the hierarchy of saved information in the brain? I've discovered that our languages reflect some of those factors. One of them can be sex ...
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5 votes
4 answers
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What role do circular network structures play in neural networks?

I'm developing small virtual neural networks and for the most part, the networks have remained feed-forward. When I create circular structures, it becomes a challenge to find a balance with the neural ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Delay time of Transmitting the information from one neuron to another in brain

Inside the brain the electrical signals are transmitted from one neuron to another by using special chemicals, called "neuro-transmitters" from the axon terminals. Could anyone can tell me how to ...
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7 votes
2 answers
237 views

How is the biological error signal in predictive coding computed?

I am quite inspired by the results obtained by PredNet, which implements a predictive coding model using artificial neural networks. They compute the prediction error as a simple subtraction, and then ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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How to connect two networks in NEURON software? [closed]

So my goal is to connect STN and SNc neurons by giving synaptic weights and then see the response. I have already modelled STN and SNc separately and observed their response. I need help with the ...
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2 votes
3 answers
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What is the difference between attractor and recurrent network?

How are attractor and recurrent networks related? Is attractor network is private case of recurrent? Is there a mathematical formalism that defines both rigorously as graphs?
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4 votes
1 answer
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Is neurogenesis driven by prediction error?

Various Deep Learning algorithms [1] and neural models [2] make use of neurogenesis to reduce prediction errors. How much evidence is there that neurogenesis is driven by prediction error or novel ...
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1 answer
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Searching for real biological neuron firing data [numeric] [closed]

I am searching for real neuron firing data, so I can look at each neuron for fire timing (frequency) and incoming/outgoing signal-strength. I already found short youtube videos of real neuron firing ...
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