Questions tagged [neural-network]

For questions about the function and structure of both biological and artificial neural networks (ANNs), and for the applications of ANNs to modeling in cognitive science.

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Is there any type of neuron capable of modeling "nonlinear function" (e.g. trigonometric, instead of "linear" in traditional Neural Networks)?

Modern Deep Learning technologies such as Self Attention and RNN, kind of integrated higher-degree nonlinear functions fundamentally. e.g. $(w_{1_{branch1}}x_1 + w_{2_{branch1}}x_2) \cdot (w_{1_{...
Life-is-DLC's user avatar
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Can neurons belong to multiple communities?

I've been reading a little about neural networks in the brain, such as this paper. Most models have a resolution parameter $γ$, and for each value of that parameter a network can be partitioned into ...
GregRos's user avatar
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Which sleep stage(s) account(s) for synaptic consolidation the most?

I learnt that long-term consolidation of memories happens vastly while we are asleep, and it is accompanied by synaptic changes. But exactly which stage(s) of our sleep account for the synaptic ...
LimeAndConconut's user avatar
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What decides which pathway-forming neurons relate to a given thought or behavior? [duplicate]

So I know pathways of neuron connections are what store or “activate” behaviors, memories, information, etc and relate to specific thoughts and other brain functions occurring, and that when we learn ...
inkwell87's user avatar
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Question about How to assign the order of vertices of a pial surface in FreeSurfer

I'm a CIVET user but I recently started to use FreeSurfer. As far as I know, for a surface from CIVET, its vertices are ordered by upsampling a polygon. So I could access downsampled surface by ...
yanghee Im's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
138 views

How different is the neural activity in different individuals when they are doing the same tasks?

Today, we can measure EEG (or fMRI) in different individuals and use machine learning to predict their thinking. I want to know if the exact neural patterns (fMRI, EGG etc.) are still similar across ...
user1282369's user avatar
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How can behaviour be heritable? [duplicate]

As humans, we are rather proud of our ability to develop and learn new behaviours, seeing this as superior to the inheritance of behaviours that increasingly dominates the repertoires of animals with ...
Daniel Boyd's user avatar
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Are there any standard tools for neuroscience models programming, like for spiking neural networks?

I come from deep learning environment and there is quite a few standard tools and frameworks that you can use in different occasions. I am trying to build a spiking neural network model in Python and ...
czechpy's user avatar
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what is a layer in a **biological** neural network?

in this book Computational Cognitive Neuroscience and its corresponding software leabra The Leabra Algorithm: Leabra stands for Local, Error-driven and Associative, Biologically Realistic Algorithm, ...
not another narcissist's user avatar
2 votes
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Update of feedback connections in brain

A recent paper by Lillicrap revisits the connection between deep learning models and brain and its biological plausibility. In their work, they show that it is possible to learn with fixed feedback ...
Blade's user avatar
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2 answers
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What does "all-or-nothing" means in spiking neural network?

I'm reading a paper by Auge et al. (2021). In the introduction they said "Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) use short 'all-or-nothing' pulses to encode and transmit information". I'm not sure ...
Natchapol Patamawisut's user avatar
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How do we know that neurons are the only cells involved in cognitive computation?

I am an undergraduate studying pure mathematics taking a class on computational neuroscience. My default lens for looking at the brain is in terms of universal computation (in the Turing machine sense)...
Tanishq Kumar's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
130 views

Does the brain send signals continuously to muscles during movement?

If I make one swift movement with my arm, like just raising it, is my brain continuously sending signals throughout the whole movement? Or does it just send signals one time? The latter seems to make ...
Jeremy Schmidt's user avatar
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What are the values of the absolute intracellular and absolute extracellular potentials in a neuron?

Most texts on neurons give the value of the membrane potential and do not state the absolute values of the intracellular and extracellular potentials in a neuron. I understand that this is because the ...
Toba's user avatar
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Difference in neural activity of a thought vs. a memory

I want to understand the difference in neural activity between a "thought" and a "memory impression". Is it a "thought" while the neural activity is present in working ...
VerySeriousSoftwareEndeavours's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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What is the actual interpretation of the "correlation of a connection between neurons"?

I am student of Mathematics who is currently studying the utility of Algebraic Topology in the field of Neuroscience. In the paper I am reading (Reimann et al 2017) the authors explain that for ...
Oscar's user avatar
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6 votes
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Using Vagus Nerve Stimulation to treat Depression

I came across an article written recently concerning the use of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) to treat difficult-to-treat depression (DTD) and other mood disorders (Sackeim, et al. 2020). However, ...
Chris Rogers's user avatar
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Neural oscillations and activity patterns

Both single neurons and groups of neurons can generate oscillatory activity spontaneously. In addition, they may show oscillatory responses to perceptual input or motor output. Even memory and ...
Ruchi's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can the human brain be simulated by a computer?

There is a Wikipedia page on brain simulation, but: Question: Could there be (experimental) evidence that the (human) brain cannot be simulated by a computer? Note that the Wikipedia page Mind ...
Sebastien Palcoux's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
93 views

Rate of Change in Neural Plasticity

I read that children brain has more neural plasticity compared to adults, with the possible explanation as appeared in this question, pertaining to synaptic changes, where if you learn something, the ...
user0193's user avatar
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From the following paragraph, why would the input or the initial condition not matter in the output?

On pg.37 of “Principles of Neural Science,” they state that “...in systems with feedback circuits it is the dynamic activity of the system that determines the outcome of computation, not inputs or ...
HallieCochran's user avatar
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Biological Neural Network Modification to Unlearn Understandings

Lets assume that a person grows up thinking that religion X is true religion. So he builds up a profile in ones head and when notion of religion X appears the neurons that is related are fired, giving ...
BiologyEnthusiast's user avatar
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Single neuron dominates for all input patterns using STDP in simple LIF SNN

I have been reading latley on SNN and decided to try and implement myself some simple simulation. So I wrote a simple MATLAB simulation using simple LIF current based model and I try using STDP to ...
user3921's user avatar
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Connectome Datasets Related to Consciousness

I am a mathematics student currently looking for connectome datasets specifically related to consciousness research. I have mainly looked at the following sites: https://neurodata.io/ https://db....
Christopher.L's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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Is using tensorflow for Spiking neural networks a "good" idea?

I recently started working with Spiking Neural Networks and was hoping for some input from others. I saw there were many libraries/platforms specifically made for working with SNN's (Brian, PyNN, ...
Amazing_Andy's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why is the occipital lobe behind instead of in front?

These are regions of our brain: Our eyes are in front below our forehead, however, the visual area Occipital Lobe is behind. Are there any biological reasons for this? why shouldn't Occipital Lobe be ...
Dan D.'s user avatar
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Testing Multilayer Perceptron [closed]

The following script is from Trappenberg's Fundamentals of Computational Neuroscience and is used to test a perceptron's robustness against noise. However, how would one alter it to test the output ...
syntheso's user avatar
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How many axons and dendrites are entering and exiting human male internal urethral sphincter? [closed]

As I know, this information is not available yet. If indeed it is not available, this question may wait for future answers. I have known out that some parts of human connectome are already mapped, so ...
qdinar's user avatar
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Decussation of Cranial Nerves

Which cranial nerves decussate apart from the few nerve fibers of the optic nerve that do and how to easilly remember the cranial nerves that do? Here is a paper for the Trochlear Nerve But I have ...
George Ntoulos's user avatar
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1 answer
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Are neurons the wrong shape to model neural networks?

Looking at neural networks, each node can be described as a neuron with either several long input wires, or several long output wires. A neuron, however, has many short input wires (dendrites) and a ...
zooby's user avatar
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2 votes
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ML/Neuroscience: TensorFlow vs PyTorch vs Keras for bulding NN models of the nervous system?

I would be very grateful to people with experience in using neural network models in neuroscience for advice! What approach would you recommend for building neural networks? I am choosing between ...
phant0msp1ke's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
131 views

Myelin and Myelin Sheath

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002261.htm Why is Myelin used as a term to mean the Myelin Sheath as opposed to the proper term? It is apparent to me that Myelin is the substance itself ...
George Ntoulos's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
69 views

What is the state of the art on the wiring optimisation problem?

One of the earliest neuroscientists, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, postulated that brains are arranged to minimise wire length [1]. In [1] Dmitri Chklovskii and Charles Stevens formulate this problem as ...
user avatar
1 vote
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Hypotheses about neural coding and neural correlates of concepts and reasoning - at the level of neurons and synapses

Are there some hypotheses about neural coding of language, concepts and logical reasoning in the brain, about neural correlates of thoughts? When I search the books, then I find lot of books about ...
TomR's user avatar
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1 answer
141 views

Is the visual cortex of a newborn baby immediately capable of object detection or is this skill learned over time, and if so, how?

Is the visual cortex of newborn babies right off the bat capable of making sense of raw visual data, for instance, converting the constant stream of raw RGB images perceived by the eyes into a ...
Pablo Messina's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
99 views

Simulating Hudgkin Huxley neural network

I'm starting work on a computational neuroscience project where I want to create my own model of a spiking Hodgkin-Huxley neuron and connect many instances (about 400) of this model through synapses. ...
markagrios's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
124 views

Why can't human thoughts be stored in metals?

As metals are good conductors of electricity and they can be charged by the electrical activity of thoughts, why can't human thoughts be stored in metals? Why thoughts cannot be stored in the form of ...
Manthan darveshi's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
75 views

Do people still use ACT-R?

A lot of computational cognitive scientists seem to be working on Neural nets (mostly vision scientists), Reinforcement learning (mostly decision making people) and Bayesian Inferences. I could hardly ...
Nishad Singhi's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
238 views

Is there a biological equivalent to the bias term used in artificial neural networks?

For the longest time, I had been thinking that the bias term used in the standard artificial neural network model (the ubiquitous one used in most machine learning implementations) can be interpreted ...
John Smith's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
72 views

Are there animals with only excitatory neurons?

Are there animals with only excitatory neurons? I am not sure it is possible. Also, maybe excitation/inhibition can become relative? I however will be happy to read your opinion.. For example, are ...
user135172's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is the difference between principal neurons and pyramidal cells?

I am reading Kandel's "Principals of Neural Sciences". There the book sometimes refers to excitatory neurons as principal cells, and sometimes as pyramidal cells. Can anyone tell me the difference? ...
user135172's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
18 views

Training adjustments of synaptic Weights [closed]

I'm a graduate student in the Electrical Engineering Program currently working on my thesis and I have to figure out how to train synaptic weights in an Artificial Neural Network either analogously or ...
Adi's user avatar
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14 votes
2 answers
933 views

The computer model of the brain

I am a computer programmer or computer engineer, and am interested in comparing the brain to a classical computer in some way. How well does this comparison hold up? This is a general introduction ...
Arnon Weinberg's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
82 views

Convolutional Operations in the Visual Cortex

One of the fundamental operations in image neural networks is the operation of convolution, where a filter slides across the receptive field, activating on particular features. This is incredibly ...
Alex R.'s user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
319 views

Why is Biological plausibility in Machine Learning important?

I have found that many authors of machine learning papers, that employ the Hebbian learning rule, refer to the biological plausibility of it, as one of the arguments to use it instead of the well ...
WiseDev's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
62 views

Task-based vs task-positive networks

Do the terms "task-positive network" and "task-based network" refer to the same thing, such as the Fronto-Parietal Control Network (FPCN), as distinct from the task-negative networks such as the ...
z8080's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
88 views

Does the brain's architecture change while growing up?

If we are somehow able to record and store all the neural connection in the brain of a child and also the brain of the same individual when he is old will there be difference between the two ? Is the ...
infiNity9819's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
157 views

Question concerning Jeff Hawkins' On Intelligence

In 2004 Jeff Hawkins' book On Intelligence was widely praised. But Hawkins made some claims about artificial neural networks that seem (to me) untenable today, only 13 years later. He gives the ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
36 views

Serializing and deserializing stable states of Hopfield networks

I am looking for simple artificial neural networks that may perform the following serializing task. Consider two identical Hopfield networks, one being at rest, the other being in a stable state of ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
55 views

How will brain-computer interfacing work? [duplicate]

I have just been reading about Elon Musks new company Neuralink. He claims that it is possible to increase the communication speed between humans and computers by using direct brain interfaces which ...
Sreram's user avatar
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