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Questions tagged [conditioning]

For questions about the systematic modification of behavior in response to external stimuli (classical conditioning) or as a consequence of own behavior (operant conditioning).

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To what extent is control over when a substance is used relevant to addiction?

For example, let's say someone uses X amount of heroin a week, and no more than Y a day. If somehow their arm is connected to a device that randomly (unpredictably, but within their "waking leisure ...
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Is it possible to effect both positive and negative reinforcement through the same action?

Consider the following scenario: a rhesus monkey is being put under severe duress somehow (isolation, sense of physical threat, whathaveyou). It is desired that a behavior, like pressing a lever, is ...
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How do cults indoctrinate people? [closed]

You hear stories about cults and the like brainwashing people all the time. How do they psychologically break people down so that they'll join up?
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Fetish development through classical conditioning?

In an older, fairly upvoted, but unreferenced answer it's been said that Classical Conditioning is a posited mechanism for fetish development. One review seems to suggest that you can't "normalize" ...
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What's the psychological concept behind mobile game design and marketing?

I see a very common trend in how every mobile game is being designed and advertised on the market. The common features are (not limited to): Very cartoony graphics (big heads small bodies) ...
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Name of sound-induced-hunger condition

When I was a student I used to notice that towards supper time, whenever I would go from my quiet study space to a place where people were talking, it people started to tell in my quiet space, i would ...
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How does one escape learned helplessness?

I've been researching learned helplessness lately, an idea that seems to be responsible for much of the negative behavior observed in humans. Basically, the idea is that once repeatedly exposed to an ...
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Is it possible to condition oneself to not be bothered by distressing sounds?

It is my (layman's) understanding that a domestic cat learns to meow in a specific tone (I've even read that it can resemble a human baby crying) in order to get the owner's attention. Regardless of ...
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Why is conditioned taste aversion an example of classical conditioning (rather than operant)?

The internet seems to be in complete agreement that conditioned taste aversion is an example of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. My (admittedly limited) understanding of classical conditioning is ...
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Episodic-memory amnesia preserving fear conditioning

Are there any experiments in humans where despite episodic-memory amnesia they still preserve (associative) fear conditioning developed during the episode/event that is lost from episodic memory? I'm ...
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Classical or Operant Conditioning?

I'm working on a conditioning experiment for my psychology class in which I tap my finger three times on a table and then ask my friend to sharpen a pencil for me. If she finishes the task I give a ...
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Fear Conditioning and Hippocampal Remapping

Have there been any studies that explore how much generalization across contexts occurs with fear conditioning? The "context" that the animal thinks it is in can be observed through the "map" that ...
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Understanding fear as a response in classical conditioning

I have difficulties to understand fear as a response to a stimuli. In my view fear occurs as a anticipation of a possible threat in the (nearby) future. Fear prepares the organism so that it can react ...
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Is the order of stimulus pairings in second order conditioning relevant? [closed]

In second order conditioning next to a CS1 + US also a CS2 + CS1 association is learned so that also CS2 will cause a CR. Is the order in which the stimuli associations are learned (CS1 + US and CS2 + ...
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how can the development of sexual preferences be influenced?

I am wondering about the development of sexual fetishes, not necessarily in its meaning of having a sexual affection for inanimate objects, but in its broader meaning of any type of sexual abnormality....
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Why do younger children cry more readily and is it possible for an adult to recondition themselves to cry as readily as a child? [duplicate]

It seems to me that generally speaking, the younger the child, the more readily they will cry in response to emotion, and that crying as an emotional response in adults tends to be more reserved for ...
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Biofeedback and Neurofeedback: Scams or Real? [closed]

I'm currently taking an AP Psychology course which just discussed biofeedback and neurofeedback very briefly. All I can say is that I'm entirely skeptical that either one works by any mechanism other ...
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Derren Brown: “Paying with paper”. Assuming legitimacy, is this simply ideomotor suggestion?

Illusionist Derren Brown's video "Paying with Paper" supposedly demonstrates real-world instances whereby Brown pays for several items in cash: the rub being, the "cash" is blank paper. It's quite ...
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Conditioning and Contingency

I've learned, that spatiotemporal neighborhood among the conditioned and the unconditioned stimuli is a presupposition of conditioning (classical or operant). A second presupposition is called "...
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What are the key dates for the development of operant conditioning?

I am trying to build up a timeline of the development of operant conditioning. So far I have the following $1898$ - Thorndike performs experiments using his puzzle box of which Skinner based his work ...
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Is it possible to bridge implicit and explicit memory?

It is self evident, from the various studies of Skinner and Pavlov, that a traumatic - or one of a similar nature - experience possesses the tendency to reside within certain schemas through the ...
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What's the difference between repetition suppression and habituation?

Neural repetition suppression seems to be describing behavioral habituation on a neuronal level. What's the difference between these two terms?
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Conditioning/training value of objects in experiment

In visual attention and decision making, how do experiments teach participants the value of specific objects (high vs low vs none)? Does anyone know of studies that done this which go into ...
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What do you call the inability to see alternative solutions to a problem?

Once I "learned" for a condition in which you have a specific solution of a problem, but you are only thinking of it and do not realize there are other / probably more appropriate / solutions. ...
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Why has behaviourism fallen out of favour?

The reasons for behaviourism as a philosophy and school of psychology to have fallen out of favour are well known and documented. However, when Newton's view of gravity was replaced by general ...
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Why do many people play Candy Crush without ever buying anything while some spend all their money on it?

I'm trying to understand how free-to-play games like Candy Crush Saga use existing knowledge of the human brain to keep people engaged and how they convince players to pay money for in-game goods. ...
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Can placebo effect be increased by modifying the perception about prescription/intake setting?

I've noticed the following pattern within my own thinking - multiple unrelated events "combine" to produce a certain action, particularly creativity and innovation. I'm trying to understand if this ...
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Is there any evidence to suggest telling puns to a child makes them enjoy it when they are older?

My own experience was that my father and grandfather retold many puns as I was in my childhood and teens; at the time, I thought it was abysmal. Now I think they're the funniest things ever. Is ...
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What cognitive properties change as the income vary?

Yesterday I made a guess: That perhaps there is a lock in some income classes - that there may be a trend that could get them stuck in there. But it's only a guess, I have no proof for such afirmation....
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Audio Inculcation and Learning

Suppose I have an audio file of a lecture of a professor explaining something to be learned - a physics concept for example, and I listen to the audio file over and over again, much like how people ...
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Are association, conditioning, and symbolic learning the same thing?

Symbols: Our brains are able to understand that some things stand for other things. For example, the sound we make when we say "food" stands for things we can eat. And with writing, we can say that ...
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Research on “probabilistic thinking” in non-human animals?

We all seem to have a "probabilistic sense", which manifests itself in certain types of expectations (e.g. even if one has never used a bow to shoot an arrow, one expects that hitting a small target ...
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Is there cognizance or meta-awareness of classical conditioning?

Behaviorism's initial popularity was largely due to it's ability to take cognition and consciousness out of the equation; bringing it close to something that could be tested completely objectively by ...
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Which type of stimulus results in an optimal learning curve for rats and mice?

When using operant conditioning to train mice or rats, what type of stimulus is most effective? For example, does a negative reinforcement of a loud noise have a more profound effect than a negative ...
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Does teaching a bird an artificial task like eating from a feeder hurt its performance in the wild?

Can training a wild animal through operant conditioning somehow cause the animal to forget or be unable to perform tasks which it had perviously learned? Is it likely that training wild animals ...
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Is “Karmic Punishment” more effective?

When I was young, my parents consistently used "Karmic Punishments", punishments that had a strong relationship to the misbehavior. They believed that this was more effective. Examples: ...
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Does not consistently providing a reward strengthen operant conditioning?

When learning about Operant Conditioning, I remember being taught that not consistently rewarding the desired behavior could (seemingly counterintuitively) actually increase the strength of learning ...
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What salient features of a {conditioned stimulus,unconditioned stimulus} pair are represented in the lateral amygdala?

In classical conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS, e.g., a tone) is presented just before an unconditioned stimulus (UCS, e.g., a mild toe pinch) in repeated trials, such that the CS will ...
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How can one find out if he/she is brainwashed?

By brainwashed I mean indoctrinated with some political, religious or other type of propaganda. I assume that you can't be aware of this, because the lack of that awareness is the point of propaganda ...
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What do anatomical substrates of conditioned taste aversion tell us about treatment?

Conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) or Garcia effect are a byproduct of feeling ill after we've consumed a certain food. These aversions is present even if the illness is not related to ingestion and ...
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Positive and negative reinforcement and punishment effectiveness

According to Skinner, positive reinforcement is superior to punishment in altering behavior. As Skinner discussed, positive reinforcement is superior to punishment in altering behavior. He ...
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Refinements of Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning

The Rescorla-Wagner model is one of the most commonly discussed mathematical models of classical conditioning. It was wildly popular when it came out in 1972, and very successful. The same math, is ...
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Is stimulus generalization acquired due to inability to discriminate stimuli?

The classic case of Stimulus Generalization is Little Albert. The About.com link also explains it in terms of dogs. I note that in both cases, it seems highly likely that the subject (dog or infant) ...
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How does goal-tracking and sign-tracking behaviour vary across species?

In Pavlonian (classical) conditioning, conditioned responses of an animal may vary. Some animals focus on the unconditioned stimulus (ie., food / location of food) while others may focus on the ...