Questions tagged [bias]

For questions about systematic patterns of deviation in judgment from normative decision-theoretic expectations.

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70
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4answers
6k views

What makes people easily subscribe to pseudoscientific theories?

There are many theories/disciplines that have been categorized as pseudoscience in the scientific community. The list includes many things that are regularly even quoted in media like graphology, ...
11
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2answers
286 views

How do clinicians control for their own mental disorders?

Has any research been done on how clinicians' (either internists or psychiatrists) known psychological conditions influence the diagnoses, misdiagnoses, and prognoses they make? And, related to that, ...
9
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3answers
516 views

What is the psychological term for disregarding correct but unwanted information?

Sometimes people seem to be very resistant to information that is in conflict with prior beliefs, even when this new information is very plausible. For example, a patient might change a doctor, ...
2
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1answer
132 views

What is the name of a cognitive bias by which existing facts are tailored to fit a personal hypothesis?

What is the name of a cognitive bias where a person takes all of their knowledge of a particular subject (at a point in time) and arranges it in a hypothesis or world model that makes sense to that ...
9
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3answers
3k views

What is the name of the cognitive bias where an expert overestimates the knowledge of others?

I'm looking for a name of a cognitive bias that describes the following phenomenon: A person has been exposed to some area of expertise from a very early age (think 7-10), and for an extended period ...
12
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4answers
836 views

What is the name of the bias when one expects you to possess his knowledge?

What is the name of bias or fallacy when, often while in argument, someone expects you to know the same things as he does. Usually, you just say "well, how should have I known that. I'm not inside of ...
3
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1answer
134 views

How to refer to the phenomenon of people only absorbing evidence which confirms their beliefs?

I knew a psychologist who was calling it self-referentiality. People are always trying to see only the sentence which confirm their beliefs. What's the correct name for this?
7
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2answers
271 views

Does fixing cognitive biases do more harm than use?

The Kahneman–Tversky interpretation of biases as deviation from rationality was challenged by Gigerenzer on the basis that heuristics help making decisions and, thus, rational from the evolutionary ...
6
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1answer
340 views

Is there a name for reading things how you meant to write them?

I'm sure many of us have this experience: When I'm proofreading my own writing I will pass over it multiple times, but miss mistakes since I read what I intended to write (what's "in my head") and ...
19
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3answers
3k views

Why do people fear statistically unlikely things?

Over 10 times more people die in circulatory diseases than accidents (source). Nevertheless people (in general) fear accidents more than circulatory disease. There are statistically even more ...
7
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3answers
275 views

Is there a term for a person who moves from one field of expertise to a new field and has an inflated belief in their competence in the new field?

Person A has led a successful career and is very well renowned in field A. Later in life, person A moves to field B, a field they're curious about but have very little experience in. Person A ...
15
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1answer
6k views

What is the primary source of the "mount stupid" graphic?

Online descriptions of the Dunning-Kruger effect are often accompanied by a "mount stupid" graphic similar to the below - from a Psychology Today article: However, the research paper does not contain ...
7
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3answers
228 views

Is there a name for a scientist's resistance to disconfirmation of his or her theories?

Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses. And some results illustrate that people set higher standards of evidence ...
3
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2answers
672 views

Binary classification as a cognitive strategy?

Is there any research investigating whether the human cognitive system has a tendency to reduce complex systems or spectra of data in terms of binary contrast? There are many common-sense dual ...
2
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1answer
138 views

Are cognitive biases hardwired in the brain or they are acquired during lifetime?

The Kahneman–Tversky interpretation of biases as deviation from rationality was challenged by Gigerenzer on the basis that heuristics help making decisions and, thus, rational from the evolutionary ...
0
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1answer
1k views

Can one claim that a person is having cognitive distortion and be always correct?

What is cognitive distorion? According to Wikipedia, "cognitive distortion are thoughts that cause individuals to perceive reality inaccurately". It is a negative outlook on reality, ...
4
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2answers
116 views

How else can we eliminate wrong underlying beliefs, when even science fails?

Source: Why Do Many Reasonable People Doubt Science?, 2015 March, by Joel Achenbach [Andrew] Shtulman [of Occidental College] ’s research indicates that as we become scientifically literate, we ...
2
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1answer
279 views

What is the psychology behind blind spots? Why do we fail to see, what others see so clearly about us?

It’s absolutely imperative to identify our blind spots. I believe that they are impediment for one to reach his full potential. But how does one, see his blind spot - #oxymoron? What is the ...
13
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2answers
402 views

How can the success of Bayesian models be reconciled with demonstrations of heuristic and biased reasoning?

In recent years, Bayesian models of cognition have been used - with considerable success - to explain human reasoning in a variety of inferential tasks (Chater, Tenenbaum, & Yuille, 2006). These ...
5
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2answers
1k views

Name of the psychological phenomenon of doing something just because you've already started doing it?

I feel like people really often do things just because they've​ already started doing it. One example could be the Electronic Evidence of Sales just established in Czechia. It's a system monitoring ...
11
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2answers
1k views

Is it possible to quantify cognitive bias?

We know that bias exists, and that it affects our judgment and perception. This effect has to do with user's experience in life. That experience is taken care of by the brain, and if you counter a ...
9
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1answer
1k views

What differences of opinion led to the Kahneman-Gigerenzer feud?

I have found many allusions to this feud, e.g. from http://nickdunbar.net/2012/05/23/thinking-fast-and-slow-by-daniel-kahneman/ and in Kahneman's trade book "Thinking, Fast and Slow". However, I have ...
7
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1answer
798 views

Thinking Fast and Slow: Similarity of Linda problem and Dinnerware case

While reading Daniel Kahneman's "Thinking, Fast and Slow" I've been stuck on the claim that Linda case and Dinnerware case have the same structure. Linda problem: Linda is thirty-one years old, ...
7
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2answers
1k views

What is the connection between cognitive dissonance and confirmation bias?

Intuitively, I'd think that cognitive dissonance (CD) is one explanation of confirmation bias (CB), since if it's the case that most people believe "I am right about most things", then admitting one ...
7
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2answers
1k views

Are men subject to optimism bias when it comes to assessing their sexual/romantic appeal?

Intuitively, I imagine that men are strongly subject to optimism bias when dating, and in particular facing rejection. (ie. not believing that she's really not attracted to him). My question is: ...
3
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0answers
155 views

Can a person be able to objectively identify when and how their thinking process is being affected by cognitive biases?

or years, I've always thought I can do a pretty good job of identifying when I have committed a bias, fallacy or some other heuristic. I'm not saying I avoid them, but at least can admit to myself I ...
8
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1answer
552 views

What is the name of the bias that associate a thing as good because it has a relation to another good thing?

A customer buys X from "brand A" and has positive experience with it. "Brand A" also sells Y. Now the customer things it is good to buy Y because of his/her positive experience with buying X from ...
5
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1answer
2k views

How do brain zaps occur?

I've recently witnessed someone undergoing brain zaps and subsequent panic attacks after having stopped their SSRI medication and 48 hours partying with heavy boozing and no sleep. Having reviewed ...
11
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2answers
311 views

Name of the bias where someone really needs something after they find out it exists

I'm looking for the name of the cognitive bias that is expressed in the following story. A fellow coworker was instrumental in getting a 75 gallon fish tank installed in the lobby of the company that ...
5
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2answers
1k views

What is the difference between hindsight bias and confirmation bias?

I'm trying to understand better the influence of psychological biases on the financial market decision-making process. Wikipedia describes hindsight as follow: Refers to the common tendency for ...
3
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2answers
66 views

Term for the tendency to relate events that occurred in proximity?

What is the correct scientific term for the tendency to wrongfully relate arbitrary observations to a significant event, just because they occurred in temporal or spatial proximity? Most recently I ...
2
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0answers
37 views

Perfect events in a random world?

I have a friend. They believe that God exists because they have experienced a large amount of 'perfect coincidences', or rather, events that are too perfect to be coincidences. What kind of ...
2
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0answers
43 views

Can you prevent your biases from swaying your logic if you're aware of them?

As in the title. Assuming you are aware of all your biases,and how they interact with your ideas, can you foresee how your biases will warp your judgement or logic, and stop that from happening? ...
2
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1answer
115 views

Why are people biased against overweight people?

Several studies have shown that alot of people are biased to underestimate\undervalue overweight people: http://www.npr.org/sections/13.7/2013/06/06/188891906/the-fat-shaming-professor-a-twitter-...
2
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1answer
74 views

What is the bias that arises because a thing is way more common than the rest?

So I have a sentence: Hence this option is free of abundance bias I've made up the phrase "abundance bias" and I want to replace it with the proper scientific term....
1
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1answer
348 views

Is it possible to be completely impartial when considering yourself?

Consider the following quotation by Poulain de la Barre: Everything that has been written by men about women should be viewed with suspicion, because they are both judge and party. Is it possible ...
1
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1answer
2k views

What's the difference between Confirmation Bias and the Affect Heuristic?

I've been reading "Thinking Fast & Slow," by Daniel Kahneman. At the end of Chapter 9, he introduces the "Affect Heuristic," a concept introduced by Paul Slovic that effectively states that people ...