Questions tagged [bias]

For questions about systematic patterns of deviation in judgment from normative decision-theoretic expectations.

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68
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4answers
6k views

What makes people easily subscribe to pseudoscientific theories?

There are many theories/disciplines that have been categorized as pseudoscience in the scientific community. The list includes many things that are regularly even quoted in media like graphology, ...
18
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3answers
3k views

Why do people fear statistically unlikely things?

Over 10 times more people die in circulatory diseases than accidents (source). Nevertheless people (in general) fear accidents more than circulatory disease. There are statistically even more ...
14
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3answers
7k views

Why do we always wake up at the climax of our dreams, even when it is an alarm that wakes us?

I know that it probably has something to do with the fact that our dreams didn't really end at the same time our alarm clock rang, our brains just make us think so for some reason.
14
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1answer
5k views

What is the primary source of the “mount stupid” graphic?

Online descriptions of the Dunning-Kruger effect are often accompanied by a "mount stupid" graphic similar to the below - from a Psychology Today article: However, the research paper does not contain ...
13
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2answers
398 views

How can the success of Bayesian models be reconciled with demonstrations of heuristic and biased reasoning?

In recent years, Bayesian models of cognition have been used - with considerable success - to explain human reasoning in a variety of inferential tasks (Chater, Tenenbaum, & Yuille, 2006). These ...
12
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4answers
824 views

What is the name of the bias when one expects you to possess his knowledge?

What is the name of bias or fallacy when, often while in argument, someone expects you to know the same things as he does. Usually, you just say "well, how should have I known that. I'm not inside of ...
11
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2answers
1k views

Is it possible to quantify cognitive bias?

We know that bias exists, and that it affects our judgment and perception. This effect has to do with user's experience in life. That experience is taken care of by the brain, and if you counter a ...
11
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2answers
307 views

Name of the bias where someone really needs something after they find out it exists

I'm looking for the name of the cognitive bias that is expressed in the following story. A fellow coworker was instrumental in getting a 75 gallon fish tank installed in the lobby of the company that ...
11
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2answers
429 views

What is the bias/thought process that results in distrust of “formal” knowledge in favor of “folk” knowledge?

An interesting effect I've noticed is that certain groups of people seem to accept "folk knowledge" and value it over significantly better founded "formal" or scientific knowledge. In particular this ...
11
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3answers
244 views

What cognitive strategies diminish bias in decision-making beyond those outlined by Larrick?

Larrick (2004; pdf) offers a small number of suggestions for strategies to diminish bias in decision making, which he breaks down into four categories. "Consider the opposite". Tell decision-makers ...
10
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2answers
474 views

Bias by which we tend to accept vague descriptions of ourselves

There's an effective strategy employed by horoscopes and "psychics" where they say vague statements like "You like being with friends but you value your time alone"; statements that basically "cover ...
10
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1answer
2k views

Is memory biased towards positive or negative memories?

I am trying to understand the relationship between positive/negative memories and the congruence of memory to existing beliefs. These quotes are from Wikipedia, presented in alphabetical order: ...
10
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2answers
252 views

How do clinicians control for their own mental disorders?

Has any research been done on how clinicians' (either internists or psychiatrists) known psychological conditions influence the diagnoses, misdiagnoses, and prognoses they make? And, related to that, ...
9
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1answer
1k views

What differences of opinion led to the Kahneman-Gigerenzer feud?

I have found many allusions to this feud, e.g. from http://nickdunbar.net/2012/05/23/thinking-fast-and-slow-by-daniel-kahneman/ and in Kahneman's trade book "Thinking, Fast and Slow". However, I have ...
9
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2answers
238 views

Does self-rated performance predict objective performance over and above other-rated performance?

Context: I was at a talk today where data was presented where a group of sports people ranked their own performance and everyone else in the group. This enabled self-rated performance to be ...
8
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3answers
2k views

What is the name of the cognitive bias where an expert overestimates the knowledge of others?

I'm looking for a name of a cognitive bias that describes the following phenomenon: A person has been exposed to some area of expertise from a very early age (think 7-10), and for an extended period ...
8
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2answers
408 views

What is the psychological term for disregarding correct but unwanted information?

Sometimes people seem to be very resistant to information that is in conflict with prior beliefs, even when this new information is very plausible. For example, a patient might change a doctor, ...
8
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1answer
127 views

How do you predict a cognitive bias theoretically using dual process theory?

Disclaimer: I am a complete layman in psychology, with no education in the field whatsoever. This question was prompted by my reading Kahneman's "Thinking Fast and Slow", in which he discusses the ...
8
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0answers
260 views

Does Golden Hammer really exist?

Note: I am not talking about Law of the instrument. I am referring to the following (anti-)pattern of behavior: A person very competent in one area (say, Philosophy) peremptorily expressing his ...
7
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2answers
263 views

Does fixing cognitive biases do more harm than use?

The Kahneman–Tversky interpretation of biases as deviation from rationality was challenged by Gigerenzer on the basis that heuristics help making decisions and, thus, rational from the evolutionary ...
7
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3answers
263 views

Is there a term for a person who moves from one field of expertise to a new field and has an inflated belief in their competence in the new field?

Person A has led a successful career and is very well renowned in field A. Later in life, person A moves to field B, a field they're curious about but have very little experience in. Person A ...
7
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3answers
218 views

Is there a name for a scientist's resistance to disconfirmation of his or her theories?

Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses. And some results illustrate that people set higher standards of evidence ...
7
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1answer
538 views

What is the name of the bias that associate a thing as good because it has a relation to another good thing?

A customer buys X from "brand A" and has positive experience with it. "Brand A" also sells Y. Now the customer things it is good to buy Y because of his/her positive experience with buying X from ...
7
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1answer
248 views

Savant syndrome and Cognitive bias

Take the case of an autistic savant with exceptional memory skills. Is this person less prone to cognitive biases involving memory skills such as availability heuristic bias than a normal person due ...
7
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1answer
504 views

What is the correlation between self-rated and objective measures of intelligence?

In the context of a broader question, someone asked: Can the detailed analyses from, say, the Wechsler test, be used to inform decisions significantly better that gut feelings can? While this ...
7
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2answers
1k views

What is the connection between cognitive dissonance and confirmation bias?

Intuitively, I'd think that cognitive dissonance (CD) is one explanation of confirmation bias (CB), since if it's the case that most people believe "I am right about most things", then admitting one ...
7
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2answers
1k views

Are men subject to optimism bias when it comes to assessing their sexual/romantic appeal?

Intuitively, I imagine that men are strongly subject to optimism bias when dating, and in particular facing rejection. (ie. not believing that she's really not attracted to him). My question is: ...
7
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1answer
748 views

Minimizing Halo Error

I'm working with a dataset wherein participants rate five different attributes of six device variants; the attribute ratings different variants are very tightly correlated, suggesting that this ...
7
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1answer
95 views

Effect of paper type on evaluation of resumes

I heard about an experiment that have shown an effect of the type of paper a resume was printed on, on the evaluation of the resume. If I remember correctly, resumes printed on heavier paper, or ...
7
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1answer
664 views

Thinking Fast and Slow: Similarity of Linda problem and Dinnerware case

While reading Daniel Kahneman's "Thinking, Fast and Slow" I've been stuck on the claim that Linda case and Dinnerware case have the same structure. Linda problem: Linda is thirty-one years old, ...
6
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2answers
380 views

Is there a term for not recognizing that other people think differently, or projecting your thought patterns on others?

For example I might make the argument that 'Women don't face discrimination in the workplace' or that 'There isn't actually any racism anymore'* because I myself don't think in an explicitly racist or ...
6
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1answer
273 views

Is there a name for reading things how you meant to write them?

I'm sure many of us have this experience: When I'm proofreading my own writing I will pass over it multiple times, but miss mistakes since I read what I intended to write (what's "in my head") and ...
6
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2answers
85 views

What term describes the discrepancy in reported intention to vote and actual voting behaviour?

I am interested in prediction markets, where traders have a monetary incentive to bet on who they think would win in an election. I think that the financial incentive in prediction markets makes them ...
6
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1answer
300 views

What are the underlying mechanisms for optimism bias?

I have asked a question before about how does smoker's decision react to new personal health information. Link here. How do people estimate smoking's impact on their mortality? Now I have a ...
6
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1answer
138 views

Quantify degree to which non-diagnostic features bias category-present response

I need a measure of the degree to which each of several features biases participants to respond "yes" in a category present / absent task for each of several categories. I have stimuli defined along ...
6
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0answers
312 views

Confirmation vs peak-end bias - when does it make sense to “save the best for last”?

This question is inspired by Should I give the interviewers surprise? on Academia.SE. The strategy of "save the best for last" seems to be affected in conflicting ways by two cognitive biases: ...
5
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3answers
211 views

Term for when the more you invest yourself in something, the less you agree to drop it

I have got a few examples:: For instance when someone buys something and it turns out that it wasn't worth it, and this person tries to convince himself that he made a good choice or that the product ...
5
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3answers
108 views

Should I look at the data of an experiment before the dataset is complete?

For a research internship I am running psychological experiments online. As it takes a while until the experiment is done (meaning that enough people participated, so that a sufficient sample size is ...
5
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2answers
118 views

Double blindedness in a fully remote trial

We are planning to do a fully remote clinical trial to test an online intervention for depression. We will be using a self-rated PHQ-9 at base-line, post intervention, and 90 days follow-up to test ...
5
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2answers
745 views

What is the difference between hindsight bias and confirmation bias?

I'm trying to understand better the influence of psychological biases on the financial market decision-making process. Wikipedia describes hindsight as follow: Refers to the common tendency for ...
5
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2answers
943 views

Name of the psychological phenomenon of doing something just because you've already started doing it?

I feel like people really often do things just because they've​ already started doing it. One example could be the Electronic Evidence of Sales just established in Czechia. It's a system monitoring ...
5
votes
1answer
108 views

Name of cognitive bias when you diminish one's competency based on someone else's for the same function?

Let's say you have a REALLY good manager, and he leaves. So you tend to underestimate/judge the next manager's competencies because the previous one was really good. How you call the cognitive bias ...
5
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2answers
196 views

Name of cognitive bias that causes experts to overestimate their ability in other areas?

Is there a name for a cognitive bias that causes people who have been successful in one area to be overconfident in their level of knowledge / ability in another unrelated area? It's related to the ...
5
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1answer
854 views

Why do children tend to choose the last option in a two-alternative forced choice task?

If I ask my toddler if she wants bananas or apples, she will consistently choose apples. The same goes for colors, other related objects, or even seemingly unrelated items - She always chooses last. ...
5
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1answer
2k views

How do brain zaps occur?

I've recently witnessed someone undergoing brain zaps and subsequent panic attacks after having stopped their SSRI medication and 48 hours partying with heavy boozing and no sleep. Having reviewed ...
5
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1answer
64 views

Is there evidence to support the Dunning-Kruger effect?

The well known Dunning-Kruger effect is oft cited as a general explanation for why people with limited expertise overestimate their abilities. Other than the initial research that described this ...
5
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2answers
116 views

Does sexual orientation influence gender bias?

Let's take three people: Alice, Bob, and Carol. Suppose Alice is heterosexual. That should imply that Alice finds Bob attractive at some level, but not Carol. Does this mean Alice is more likely to be ...
5
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2answers
296 views

How can we get rid of the problems of misconception, assumption, and expectation?

I watched a TedX Talk that called "The Surprising Secret of Solving Problems Quickly" by Collins Key, about 3 problems that most greatly hinder our ability to solve intriguing problems. These 3 ...
5
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0answers
252 views

Are some cognitive bias universal? If yes, which one? [closed]

Many studies show that humans are subject to “cognitive bias” such as the loss aversion or, ingroup vs outgroup, or negativity bias. These studies often claim that the cognitive biases are universal ...
5
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0answers
46 views

Has anyone ever conducted a psychological experiment to test whether an arbitrator appointed by one party tends to judge in favour of that party?

I am interested in the case where the arbitrator has been unilaterally appointed by one of the parties in a conflict. Assume that economic rewards are not involved. I am only interested in knowing if ...