Questions tagged [bias]

For questions about systematic patterns of deviation in judgment from normative decision-theoretic expectations.

37 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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8
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275 views

Does Golden Hammer really exist?

Note: I am not talking about Law of the instrument. I am referring to the following (anti-)pattern of behavior: A person very competent in one area (say, Philosophy) peremptorily expressing his ...
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319 views

Confirmation vs peak-end bias - when does it make sense to "save the best for last"?

This question is inspired by Should I give the interviewers surprise? on Academia.SE. The strategy of "save the best for last" seems to be affected in conflicting ways by two cognitive biases: ...
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397 views

How can we get rid of the problems of misconception, assumption, and expectation?

I watched a TedX Talk that called "The Surprising Secret of Solving Problems Quickly" by Collins Key, about 3 problems that most greatly hinder our ability to solve intriguing problems. These 3 ...
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Has anyone ever conducted a psychological experiment to test whether an arbitrator appointed by one party tends to judge in favour of that party?

I am interested in the case where the arbitrator has been unilaterally appointed by one of the parties in a conflict. Assume that economic rewards are not involved. I am only interested in knowing if ...
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1answer
153 views

Do depressed people think that they always thought in such a negative way?

I feel like I may have read or heard a finding that depressed people may get the delusion that they always used to think in such a negative way as has begun since getting depression. Is it so?
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Name the bias when one attributes all group successes to the individual they're in contact with the most

This is the fallacy when one assumes that all successful outcomes were most likely thanks to that one individual that they always communicate with, and fail to recognize (consciously or subconsciously)...
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28 views

Where and why would "skill" not increase monotonically with time invested?

I'm a fan of games and activities with steep learning curves and high skill ceilings, and very precarious lines between success and failure. Such success may not be strictly linear or predictable (e.g....
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36 views

Has research established a negative relation between gender-neutral language and gender stereotyping of known individuals?

There has been some research on the effect of gender-neutral language on gender stereotypes. For instance, Lindqvist et al. (2017) studied the effect of gendered and non-gendered pronouns on ...
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27 views

What is the cognitive bias called where you put an ethical boundary just above where you are?

What is the cognitive bias called where you put an ethical boundary just above where you are? It's where people often say that something is morally acceptable to do something up to a certain point in ...
3
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0answers
155 views

Can a person be able to objectively identify when and how their thinking process is being affected by cognitive biases?

or years, I've always thought I can do a pretty good job of identifying when I have committed a bias, fallacy or some other heuristic. I'm not saying I avoid them, but at least can admit to myself I ...
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33 views

Gestalt Principles of Perception

I have studied that Gestalt Principles are principles/laws of human perception that describe how humans group similar elements, recognize patterns, and simplify complex images when we perceive objects....
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47 views

Research on the psychopathology of rapists

Since not all sexual assaulters are psychopaths or sadists as the media often chalks them up to ,there is scope to at least mend the thinking of some of the rapists, or any which haven't yet given in ...
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41 views

Is the Sagan standard a kind of proportionality bias?

Is the Sagan standard, which says that "extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence", a kind of proportionality bias? Since the proportionality bias is a tendency to believe that ...
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42 views

Can you prevent your biases from swaying your logic if you're aware of them?

As in the title. Assuming you are aware of all your biases,and how they interact with your ideas, can you foresee how your biases will warp your judgement or logic, and stop that from happening? ...
2
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50 views

How is illusory superiority reconciled with the false-consensus effect?

On one hand, people often seem to exhibit various forms of illusory [self-]superiority, perhaps the best known example of that being the Dunning–Kruger effect. On the other hand, the false consensus ...
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Do any personality factors reduce illusory superiority?

Apparently individuals suffering from schizotypy lack illusory superiority in one particular domain: evaluation of their affect. That is to say, neurotypicals overrate their positive affect (and ...
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44 views

What could explain the apparent association between high IAT bias scores and percentage of black americans per state?

The implicit Association test (IAT) measures your subconcious preference for white over black or the other way around. It does so by letting you do a task where you have to categorize black and white ...
2
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195 views

Defensive attribution vs Self-serving bias

What is the difference between "Defensive attribution" and the "self-serving-bias"? Both seem to involve a practice where one would attribute our failures to circumstances and our successes to ...
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37 views

Perfect events in a random world?

I have a friend. They believe that God exists because they have experienced a large amount of 'perfect coincidences', or rather, events that are too perfect to be coincidences. What kind of ...
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72 views

Correlation of g and Honesty, Rationality, etc?

Are there any meta-analyses reporting the correlations of g (IQ, general mental ability) with: Honesty-Humility (e.g. in HEXACO model). I know Conscientiousness (of Big Five) generally has zero ...
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457 views

Anchoring Heuristic: a type of heuristic or the mechanism of functioning of heuristics?

Heuristic is a mental shortcut that helps us to make decisions and judgments quickly, without spending time analyizing any aspect of reality. There are several different categories of heuristics, ...
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39 views

Are there any studies that test for preference between balls and blocks in infants?

I was getting in the old round corners vs square corners conversation and the majority of arguments for rounded corners revolve around our subconscious desire for natural round things over artificial ...
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79 views

Quantification of tendency for people to believe what is convenient

As a generalization, people have a bias towards believing what is convenient to them and/or doesn't challenge their worldview. I believe (though correct me if I'm wrong) this is linked to status quo ...
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31 views

"Polysemous heuristics": people trusts Tesla Inc more if they already trusted Nikola Tesla, even though those two are unrelated

For example, because of massive number of films and online short videos, the population is convinced that Tesla is a great inventor. The population is more likely to give a positive opinion (or ...
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32 views

Is cognitive distortions more fixated than cognitive biases?

I get that due to our heuristic, we can have cognitive bias. However, it is simply out of our awareness, and if someone else points them out correctly, we are easy to accept that (maybe with ...
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Is there a cognitive bias that makes people consider information coming from someone they don't like as more likely to be wrong?

Frequently I noticed this happening with people. When A dislikes B, A tends to think B is wrong all the time. And it seems to be persistent, even when B is proven correct multiple times, it doesn't ...
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45 views

How do we call a tendency of young children to accept things as facts without doubting them?

I have noticed that young children don't doubt a lot of things. If a teacher tell them "1+1=2", they usually just learn it without questioning. When those children get older, they often start to ...
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31 views

What is the phenomenon of devaluing others' abilities called?

The Dunning-Kruger describes a cognitive bias where people evaluate their own skills as greater than reality. I wonder about a similar situation wherein one underestimates the abilities of others. I ...
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15 views

Is there a link between confirmation biases and a tendency to subscribe to religions?

I've just read Rolf Dobelli's The Art of Thinking Clearly, as well as Mark Manson's Everything is F*cked, which I stumbled upon the concept of cognitive biases. In the books they mentioned how ...
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42 views

In what contexts is loss aversion least controversial?

Loss aversion (and related phenomena like the endowment effect) are somewhat controversial, it seems; from Wikipedia: Recently, studies have questioned the existence of loss aversion. In several ...
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103 views

Risk aversion and/or loss aversion in partner-abuse victims who persist in their relationship with the abuser?

A recent study by Baek et al. (2017) found that depressed patients with a history of suicide attempt(s) were exhibiting risk and loss aversion much more so than the general population does. (Note that ...
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56 views

How to assess the rationality of real-life decisions?

I am looking for scales that measure the extent to which the process by which a person arrived at a real-life decision conformed to the principles of decision theory. I am specifically interested in ...
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106 views

Links between biases and personality?

I was thinking of how a lot of people are biased against overweight people. . One of the answers considers how we tend to "take part" with those that remind us of ourselves, and we are biased against ...
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20 views

Why humans tend to bias themselves in self serving way?

Recently, I have started to notice people who think they are smarter than other people. Actually, they really look like smart people - they do their intellectual work fast and good, they talk smart ...
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21 views

Looking for a study featuring a self-reflection growth/distribution curve

What I mean is a graph that would either feature: a histogram of self-reflection distribution in the general population a curve reflecting the growth in self-reflection resulting from a therapy or a ...
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1answer
64 views

Bias caused by the opinion of a famous person on matters they are not well-educated on?

What is the name of the bias caused by the fame of a person on subject matters they are not experts on? E.g: If a celebrity they like talks about climate change, people might tend to read, discuss, ...
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1answer
42 views

Why is the shoemaker badly shod?

In other words, why are professionals/experts good at doing what they know to do for others but not for themselves ? What is the psychological bias behind this ? Of course this questions comes from ...