The limited resource model of self control suggests that the exertion of self control can impair performance in subsequent cognitive control tasks (for details on the model, check this question. Most research has examined behavioral outcome, e.g., performance on task, physiological change. So far, I only know two papers using neural data to test the theory. Wang (2014) and Inzlinct (2007) reported reduced Errror-Related Negativity (ERN) after practicing self control, however both of them used emotion regulation.
My question is: is it sufficient to claim the reduced ERN is related to self control? since self control is not limited to regulating emotions (Muraven et. al., 1998), but also thought, attention and impulsivity.
- Muraven, M., Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Self-control as a limited resource: Regulatory depletion patterns. Journal of personality and social psychology, 74(3), 774. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.524
Inzlicht, M., & Gutsell, J. N. (2007). Running on empty neural signals for self-control failure. Psychological Science, 18(11), 933-937. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02004.x
Wang, Y., & Yang, L. (2014). Suppression (but Not Reappraisal) Impairs Subsequent Error Detection: An ERP Study of Emotion Regulation's Resource-Depleting Effect. PloS one, 9(4), e96339.DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096339