I am a researcher in computer science, and I am looking for some literature in the field of psychology related to the task of connecting information; something like a study or a theory relevant to the process that the human brain does when solving the problem of connecting information. For example, when someone needs to compare two pieces of information and find the similarities, or when someone sees a person and immediately some information about an event comes to her mind, because she relates the person with such an event.

I would be grateful if someone could suggest names of concepts or theories, cite papers containing studies, give titles of books or point to digital libraries on the topic.