There seem to be at least two kinds of confusion regarding novel concepts.
In one, the brain simply can't form an abstract model from whatever information is being presented. It's where you can't "wrap your head around" something.
In another, the brain perceives a cognitive dissonance, where something doesn't "add up", but further information provides a unifying model that can explain everything being presented.
They seem to be related.
The brain is somehow able to evaluate the fidelity of an abstract model that it's trying to construct. How does this happen?