I'm not able to directly answer your question, but I would suggest you take a look at some of the ideas association with Lev Vygotsky (wikipedia is as good a place to start as any).
Schema theory is a relatively static idea - schemata exist as simplified internal representations of an external reality, and are symbolic, much like the memory of a computer. I'm not sure, for that reason, if there should be any term for your
potential "schemata/patterns/ideas" out in the world not yet encountered by the individual, because a schema is nothing more than a representation (although see Plato's theory of forms).
In Vygotskian theory (or cultural-historical psychology), on the other hand, knowledge is seen as something that emerges from the interaction between a person, the people they encounter, and their broader social and cultural environment.
I know I can't do justice to these ideas myself, but I offer them as a starting point to better understand the concepts you're getting at in your question.
Sorry about all the wikipedia links.
A very good starting point is the following book. It should be retrievable quite easily over the Internet.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.