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Egosyntonic thoughts/ideas are those that are consistent with self-image, and egodystonic thoughts are recognized as inconsistent.

For example, in obsessive compulsive disorder, the patient will often recognize that their behaviors are strange or absurd, but convincing a patient with severe symptoms of schizophrenia that their thoughts are potentially aberrant is not an easy task.

The "ego" of these two concepts, as it were, seems to be an earmark of a Freudian frame of reference, which I think that most scholars can agree is a dog that's had its day. The concepts of egosyntonic and egodystonic still have some utility. Is there any terminology or characterization that frames these concepts in terms of cognitive psychology?

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Cognitive dissonance theory seems to be exactly what you're looking for. It seeks to explain how and why people hold incongruous or dissonant beliefs. I guess egosyntonic beliefs would be consonant with self, egodystonic would be dissonant. Anyway, I'll just link you to the Wikipedia page:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance

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