Nowadays, is there any knowledge about the mechanism through ADHD act? Why the people which have ADHD manifest the symptoms related to the disorder? Is some type of malformation or the presence/absence of some neurotransmitter? I would like too to have reading recommendations, books or scientific papers.


1 Answer 1


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The exact etiology of ADHD remains unclear. However, multiple factors are believed to contribute, including genetic predisposition, environmental influences, and neurological factors.

  1. Genetic Factors: ADHD is considered to be a highly heritable disorder, with estimates ranging from 60% to 80%. Several genes, many of which are involved with the dopaminergic signaling pathway, have been linked to the disorder.

  2. Neurotransmitter Systems and Neuroanatomy: Research has indicated abnormalities in several neurotransmitter systems—particularly dopamine and norepinephrine—in individuals with ADHD. Certain areas of the brain have also been found to be different in individuals with ADHD. For example, neuroimaging studies have suggested that frontal lobe and anterior cingulate cortex, areas involved in attention and executive functions, might be smaller or function differently in those with ADHD.

  3. Executive Function Deficits: Many individuals with ADHD have deficits in executive functioning, which includes attentional control, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. These deficits can lead to difficulty in planning, focusing attention, following instructions, and managing details.

  4. Delayed Brain Maturation: A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences showed that the cortical development in children with ADHD is delayed compared to children without ADHD, specifically in the prefrontal regions that control attention and motor planning.

For more detailed scientific insights into ADHD, consider the following publications:

  • Faraone, S. V., & Larsson, H. (2019). Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 24(4), 562–575.

  • Thapar, A., & Cooper, M. (2016). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Lancet, 387(10024), 1240–1250.

  • Castellanos, F. X., & Proal, E. (2012). Large-scale brain systems in ADHD: beyond the prefrontal–striatal model. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(1), 17–26.

  • Shaw, P., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Blumenthal, J., Lerch, J. P., Greenstein, D., ... & Rapoport, J. L. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(49), 19649-19654.

I were reaserching in the ADHD field about two years ago. But hope this information helps.


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