Some hypotheses below:
- The emotion is not adapted to the situation
It is possible that the unpleasant feeling might come from the perception that the emotion is not adapted to the situation.
The three examples given (stress, anger and excitation) have positive dimensions; however, if these emotions are experienced at the wrong intensity, in the wrong place and at the wrong moment, it is possible that it may elicit negative reactions from the environment, which in turn would elicit negative feelings.
For instance, the person might experience an emotion of anger, which gives a sense of control (that is pleasant), in a situation where the person doesn't really in fact have any control over, something which could translate through different cues that the person might nevertheless subconsciously feel, and give them negative feelings, to which is added the negative feeling felt from this discrepancy (see subsection below on emotional intelligence).
- These emotions may act like drugs
Something that to me intuitively would make possible to not recognize an emotion as unpleasant is that, when we take the three examples (high stress, anger, and excitement) above: (1) they have contradictory valences, which can act like a trap (2) they are related to high arousal and feelings of control, which can be addictive (I suppose). And so (1) and (2) would prevent from tentatively regulating these emotions.
- Psychological: Emotional intelligence
Psychological abilities and traits such as emotional intelligence could be a factor in this phenomenon.
Emotional intelligence (EI) is most often defined as the ability to perceive, use, understand, manage, and handle emotions. People with high emotional intelligence can recognize their own emotions and those of others, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, and adjust emotions to adapt to environments.1
There are evidence that neuroticism makes people less able to recognize negative emotions.
However, previous studies suggest that highly neurotic individuals tend to have lower EI.
For example, Petrides et al. (2010) found that neuroticism was the only negative, but the strongest, predictor of trait EI among Big Five personality dimensions.
This suggests that strong negative emotionality may hinder neurotic individuals from accurately perceiving emotions of others and of themselves, and regulating emotions in social interactions (Newby et al., 2017)
(Guo et al. 2018)
Maybe the concomitant role of stimulants such as caffeine in the maintenance and the creation of these emotions should not be discarded.
Caffeine is well absorbed by the body, and the short-term effects are usually experienced between 5 and 30 minutes after having it. These effects can include increased breathing and heart rate, and increased mental alertness and physical energy.
The stimulating effects of caffeine cause alterness right away. It can also temporarily relieve drowsiness and fatigue. Too much caffeine can overstimulate the brain, leading to confusion.
This SE question is related.
Guo, Q., Sun, P., & Li, L. (2018). Why neurotic individuals are less prosocial? A multiple mediation analysis regarding related mechanisms. Personality and Individual Differences, 128, 55-61.