In Bloom's Taxonomy, knowledge is divided into four categories: 1) factual knowledge, 2) conceptual knowledge, 3) procedural knowledge, 4) meta-cognitive knowledge.

Terminology is a type of factual knowledge which, for example, includes knowledge of scientific terms; while conceptual knowledge is about the interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together.

Some details of knowledge of terminology in A Taxonomy for Learning Teaching and Assessing by Lorin Anderson etc.:

Knowledge of terminology includes knowledge of specific verbal and nonverbal labels and symbols (e.g., words, numerals, signs, pictures}. Each subject matter contains a large number of labels and symbols, both verbal and nonverbal, that have particular referents. They are the basic language of the discipline-the shorthand used by experts to express what they know. In any attempt by experts to communicate with others about phenomena within their discipline, they find it necessary to use the special labels and symbols they have devised. In many cases, it is impossible for experts to discuss problems in their discipline without making use of essential terms. Quite literally, they are unable to even think about many of the phenomena in the discipline unless they use these labels and symbols.

And the explanation of knowledge of classifications and categories:

Subtype Ba includes the specific categories, classes, divisions, and arrangements that are used in different subject matters. As a subject matter develops, individuals who work on it find it advantageous to develop classifications and categories that they can use to structure and systematize the phenomena. This type of knowledge is somewhat more general and often more abstract than the knowledge of terminology and specific facts. Each subject matter has a set of categories that are used to discover new elements as well as to deal with them once they are discovered. Classifications and categories differ from terminology and facts in that they form the connecting links between and among specific elements.

If I am not wrong, a scientific term may also include such interrelationships since most terms can be further categorized into more specific terms. For instance, a third grade in primary school learns the terminology mean or average[1], and for them the mean or average should be a terminology in factual knowledge. But for high school students there are many types of mean: arithmetic mean, weighted mean, geometric mean and harmonic mean, then for them mean is conceptual knowledge(classifications and categories).

I wonder if my thinking of the relativeness of the terminology knowledge is right? If not, how to interpret that kind of knowledge? Thanks in advance and any advice would be highly appreciated.


1 Answer 1


Indeed from your non-trivial description this sounds confusing and may not be necessarily mutually exclusive for such taxonomy (aren't most taxonomy like this as reflected in the usual multiple complex inheritance diagrams?). Specifically based on contemporary cognitive science knowledge, the above factual knowledge could be related to the famous long term explicit memory and above conceptual and procedural knowledge are related to long term implicit memory. Finally meta-cognitive knowledge may be related to higher order consciousness only possessed by some types of mammals and surprisingly also some birds which could pass the famous mirror test for self-awareness.

Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of factual information, previous experiences, and concepts.[1] This type of memory is dependent upon three processes: acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval.[2][3] Explicit memory can be divided into two categories: episodic memory, which stores specific personal experiences, and semantic memory, which stores factual information.[4] Explicit memory requires gradual learning, with multiple presentations of a stimulus and response.

most common forms is procedural memory, which allows people to perform certain tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences; for example, remembering how to tie one's shoes or ride a bicycle without consciously thinking about those activities... Evidence for implicit memory arises in priming, a process whereby subjects are measured by how they have improved their performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously prepared.[3][4] Implicit memory also leads to the illusory truth effect, which suggests that subjects are more likely to rate as true those statements that they have already heard, regardless of their truthfulness.[5]

In summary, same "average" could be classified as terminology without procedural understanding for children, and also classified as conceptual/procedural for those know what's really going on here under the hood. Finally, there's some scientific evidence about the correlation between REM sleep and procedural knowledge and NREM sleep associated with mere factual terminology knowledge.


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