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Why are there so few women in math olympics (IMO and etc)? If this is also related to the low participation of women in the Olympics compared to men, I would like to know.

Why Are There Still Only Few Women in Science An interesting article you can find on Nytimes about why low number of women in science

I also found some studies that try to explain why women's participation in math olympics is low. They have shown that many women also believe the stereotype that women are bad at math. Women who hold this belief may be reluctant to compete in math competitions, so it probably makes up for this effect.

Women and Mathematics: Stereotypes, Identity, and Achievement Both Genders Think Women Are Bad at Basic Math

I sent some studies that I read and found relevant.

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This is my first answer here, so bear with me. Suggestions on how to make this answer better are welcome.

There are several studies that indicate that men are more interested in things and women are more interested in people.

In Scandinavia where genders are the most equal there is a bigger gap between men and women in the STEM fields. Which suggests that the interest in people or things is biological and not perse social or cultural.

To compete in the math olympics you need to be really good in what you do. Or for the sake of argument to be a high level engineer or any other high level position in the STEM field.

You will have more men than women. Because there are less women to begin with.

Plus women excel in verbal skills. So they have more options outside STEM fields only.

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