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Molecules like GCaMP fluoresce when calcium ions attach to them. I was wondering if this can work with the other neurotransmitters in the brain or compounds that transmit signals outside of neurons.

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Yes, for example there is the, uhh, creatively named "glue sniffer": GluSnFRs that responds to glutamate by fluorescing, and a couple other varieties as well (also mentioned on that Wikipedia page).

The concept is similar to the calcium-sensitive dyes: couple a motif that binds to the target of interest and causes a conformational change with a motif related to fluorescent proteins like GFP/YFP, such that the binding of the target molecule/ion allows the fluorescent motif to be active.

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