In the simplest neural networks (that's the only I've experience with), the learning process is the update of parameters of a function, such that the overall error between inputs and prediction is minimized.
This function being trained, when we feed it with data, it tells us the label. The idea is pretty simple.
If we want to push forward this analogy, just for the sake of doing something, there should be evidence of how a set of exposures to "labelled" inputs, change either the neurons, or the connections between them.
I'm not referring so much to models, but to structural changes observed when a brain learns to put a label to a perception.
I've followed a few theories of computer scientist like Marvin Minsky (society of mind), but no much of the actual evidence.
Is there such an evidence? Is there any informal ground level article you could provide of this?