The question is a bit vague so let me try to clarify a bit in what I am interested. And by doing so also narrow down my understanding of what I am looking for.

Under the impression of the 2020 US election but also recent experiences of people believing COVID to be a hoax and Germany to be a dictatorship I am struggling to define what counts as facts anymore and to somehow convincingly explain my believe in science.

I would like to know if there is a good resource on understanding why large parts of the population in different parts of the world do not believe in science or more generally how it is determined what humans believe in.

Related to this is there some definition of what constitutes a fact and does this definition hold in the context of a human society (is the term even defined here)? What I mean by this is best explained by analogy to mathematics: It is my understanding that in mathematics given a set of axioms you then build up further facts based on proofs utilizing nothing but the axioms. How can one related this to what one would consider a fact in our everyday conversations?