There are several approaches to categorize personality characteristics into similar amount of types: the four temperament theory, DISC theory, the PAEI model.

Is there any research about possible biological preconditions of mentioned theories?

  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to Psychology.SE. I have reordered your "thinking types" to make the conceptual differences clearer but some info is needed on where you got the concept from. This sounds to me to be linked with NLP or similar. Maybe mesmerism. Am I correct? $\endgroup$ – Chris Rogers Oct 20 '20 at 8:15
  • $\begingroup$ It's more some general reasoning. If we suggest that reflexes are basic instruments for actions or thinking, then only grasp reflexes are universal tool for abstract thinking. $\endgroup$ – Greg Oven Oct 20 '20 at 9:46
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    $\begingroup$ This 'question' is mostly a hypothesis you put forward. Please stick to a well-motivated question in the question body, and you can add your hypothesis (including citations) as an answer post to your own question. $\endgroup$ – Steven Jeuris Oct 20 '20 at 10:37

The four temperament theory is an ancient theory of personality; however, it does appear to have been the dominant theory of personality from 400BCE through to the mid 1800s. New theories of personality emerged with Darwin's observations on emotion and Galton's proposal of the lexical hypothesis. The lexical hypothesis is foundation of many of the current theories of personality, the most popular of which is the five factor model.

More recent temperament theories such as MBTI, DISC have been criticised for a lack of scientific basis and being Barnum tests. Barnum tests are such that everyone is happy with the result, i.e. Are you either intelligent or clever? MBTI and DISC seem to omit the less attractive aspects of humanity, such as: narcissism, anger, anxiety, depression etc. On this basis, research of temperament is infrequent.

A criticism of psychological theories in general (not just temperament theories) is that the neurobiological basis remains unidentified, see here and here. An active area of current science is to establish the neurobiological basis of personality and progress is regularly reported.

  • $\begingroup$ The PAEI model (links added to your question) appears to be a model of roles within organisations, not really a temperament model. $\endgroup$ – Tony Mobbs Oct 21 '20 at 0:08

Eysenck is a popular theorist who proposed a biological basis for Extraversion, Psychoticism, and Neuroticism. He didn't do a lot of empirical research but his theory has influenced researchers, see Chapman and Weiss.


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