As Bryan Krause suggested (above), talking with your psychotherapist is likely the most important next step for you to take.
Also, please note that what I write below is simply general information about cognitive behavioral therapy. I do not know your situation. What I share with you here is not personal advice. It is information only.
You might find it helpful to read more about cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) because it might answer at least one of your questions, which I will paraphrase as: Why are cognitive distortions potentially harmful?
Brief answer with an example
What you think (assumptions, beliefs) about yourself and the world greatly influences what you do (behavior) and how you feel (emotions). Our minds often distort reality by "telling" us untruths, which in turn lead us to feel and act differently.
Example: I'm a college student majoring in psychology. I studied reasonably well for a statistics test, but I received a "B-" grade. My friend received an "A". I immediately think, "I'm not smart enough to be a psychologist." I subsequently don't study as hard and I start thinking about changing to an "easy" major. I feel down and start to smoke weed every day to feel better, which causes me to feel even less motivated.
Thus, according to cognitive behavioral theory, my negative (distorted) thoughts about the "B-" grade led to a downward spiral of maladaptive behaviors and depressed mood.
Very brief history
Aaron Beck, M.D. is widely regarded as the father of cognitive therapy. One of his first breakthrough articles was:
Beck, Aaron T. "Thinking and Depression: I. Idiosyncratic Content and Cognitive Distortions." Archives of General Psychiatry 9, No. 4 (1963): 324–333. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1963.01720160014002
John M. Grohol, "15 Common Cognitive Distortions", PsychCentral (24 Jun 2019). Here is a quote from Dr. Grohol's article:
What’s a cognitive distortion and why do so many people have them?
Cognitive distortions are simply ways that our mind convinces us of
something that isn’t really true. These inaccurate thoughts are
usually used to reinforce negative thinking or emotions — telling
ourselves things that sound rational and accurate, but really only
serve to keep us feeling bad about ourselves.
Cherry, Kendra. "What Is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)?" verywellmind (13 June 2020). This is a quote from the article:
Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on changing the automatic
negative thoughts that can contribute to and worsen emotional
difficulties, depression, and anxiety. These spontaneous negative
thoughts have a detrimental influence on mood.
Note that "automatic negative thoughts" and "cognitive distortions", as used by most psychotherapists, have very similar if not identical meanings.
The top-selling cognitive behavioral therapy book on Amazon.com currently is:
Gillihan, Seth J. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Made Simple: 10 Strategies for Managing Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Panic, and Worry. Emeryville, CA: Althea Press (Callisto Media), 2018. (Amazon rating/reviews: 4.6 stars; ReviewMeta: 4.6 stars)
I haven't read Gillihan's book, but a ReviewMeta rating of 4.6 based on 97 reviews suggests it's been helpful to most people.
Of course, there are scores of good online articles and books about cognitive behavioral therapy. The ones I mentioned are just a select sample to (hopefully) get you started learning more.