I'd really like to know how psychology and neuroscience are working with the concepts of "ideas", "beliefs", "mental images" and "thoughts" nowadays. I'm designing some mental health training for school teachers and as a first step I am introducing them to familiar elements they can recognise in their own minds. Feelings, emotions, attention and goals are maybe easier to isolate and explain a bit. But the ovelap among the first set of concepts I'm mentioning is too big to make easy distinctions. That's why I would find very helpful if anyone could help me clarify the connections and differences between the concepts of "ideas", "beliefs", "mental images" and "thoughts".
As I've said, I'm asking this question because I'm preparing a course for school teachers. So I'm not really asking for a very in depth exposition (although of course it can always be very interesting to read, if offered). Just some brief definitions with the most relevant and least controverted relations and key differences among these concepts can be of much help.
Thank you very much in advance for your attention.