I'd really like to know how psychology and neuroscience are working with the concepts of "ideas", "beliefs", "mental images" and "thoughts" nowadays. I'm designing some mental health training for school teachers and as a first step I am introducing them to familiar elements they can recognise in their own minds. Feelings, emotions, attention and goals are maybe easier to isolate and explain a bit. But the ovelap among the first set of concepts I'm mentioning is too big to make easy distinctions. That's why I would find very helpful if anyone could help me clarify the connections and differences between the concepts of "ideas", "beliefs", "mental images" and "thoughts".

As I've said, I'm asking this question because I'm preparing a course for school teachers. So I'm not really asking for a very in depth exposition (although of course it can always be very interesting to read, if offered). Just some brief definitions with the most relevant and least controverted relations and key differences among these concepts can be of much help.

Thank you very much in advance for your attention.

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to Psychology.SE. This is a huge subject which can fill volumes of books. Thoughts can generate mental images leading to ideas and maybe beliefs, and they can all interplay with each other in so many different ways. Is there a way to make your question more focused in order for a concise answer to be able to be given which may help you? If needed you could ask multiple separate questions here which when combining the answers can form a more complete answer to what you are looking for. It's just that this is such a huge area of study that it would take a lot for someone to answer fully. $\endgroup$ Aug 19 '20 at 13:42