I'm pretty sure that the answer to the following question is yes : Is there any categorization of cognitive abilities based on brain structure and biology?
However, because I'm a newbie, I'm kind of lost in the subject of neuroscience, I would like to know where I could find such a thing.
Here's what I call "a categorization based on brain structure and biology": From what I read on the subject (a French book called "Apprendre" (= "To learn") from Stanislas Dehaene - English translation of synopsis), some brain areas that seem to have been designed for some "primitive" tasks (I have in mind a study showing that the area that is usually active in face recognition seems to be reused for the ability to read for modern sapiens). So, I suppose that this area has some information processing abilities that can be explained in a certain way by biology/brain structure, etc... So, we might relate "face recognition" and "reading" in the same category of cognitive ability.
To summarise, what I'd like to know for a certain cognitive ability:
- Which part of the brain is concerned?
- If possible, why is it this part? (the structure, the biology of it etc...)
- What is the fundamental use of this part?
- How is this ability working?
(if it's something about being able to do some maths, how do we do it, which part of the brain and why, what should this part of the brain be used for, how do we make abstract thoughts and how do we resolve an equation)
Can you please point me in the direction of some references where I can learn the state of the art on the subject? (more especially in the field of intellectual abilities, memory, and learning).