From an answer to the question Research suggesting conscious control over brain region activation? I have learned:

»[S]ubjects become better at up-regulating or down-regulating activation in specific brain regions by attending to feedback-- even moreso than subjects who do not receive biofeedback. This is reflected both in the fMRI images and subjective reports from the subjects.«

Given this as a fact: How well is it understood? Which mechanisms are believed to be at work? I assume the fMRI scans mainly indicate that a specific brain region is more or less active but not why so. "Why so" could mean:

  • By which mechanisms inside the region?
  • By which influence by other regions?
  • By which learned practice?
  • How are the immediate causes (of higher activity) related to the fact that the subject pays attention to the feedback?
  • How does consciousness come into play?

My question is: Which of these questions do already have a (partial) answer?


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