I think, for a start, that you are absolutely right that time passes faster for older people. How can you do research to show this? It's a silly comment. Life itself shows that this is the case. When you're young (under your teens), normally, you enjoy life every day, crying and laughing. The days seem to last "forever". Although it is said that time flies by when having a good time. But I think the last is the case for older young ones (like Einstein said when having a good time with your girlfriend time seems to pass much faster than holding you're hands on a hot object for a minute). Though it could be possible that in a Hopi society (to name an example) this isn't the case, but I'm 100% are it's the case when growing older.
Considering your question. It is said we are living in fast times these days. It's a rat's race. Are living fast and the perception of the speed of time connected? I think indeed. When I lay in my bed the whole of the day while feeling depressed, I can tell you that time passes slowly! Except when you sleep, of course. When I have many things to do (which I like) there can't be plenty of time enough, so time flies by. On the contrary, doing a job you hate for eight hours, will slow down your perception of time. Always looking at the clock: when can I go home?
I think this has been the case in all eras we are looking at. Why shouldn't it? I think a physical clock will have no effect on that. In almost all, if not all, cultures a physical clock is present. It's not a Swiss-made precisely ticking clock or an atomic clock, but one that resides in Nature.
So my answer: No.