In Pavlonian (classical) conditioning, conditioned responses of an animal may vary. Some animals focus on the unconditioned stimulus (ie. food/location of food) while others may focus on the conditioned stimulus (ie. lever or button). These behaviors have been termed 'goal-tracking' and 'sign-tracking' respectively, as defined by Flagel et al. (2007).
- What are some known examples of this variation between different species?
- How does the variation within a species differ across species? Do some species exhibit more or less variation than other species?
Flagel SB, Watson SJ, Robinson TE, Akil H. (2007). Individual differences in the propensity to approach signals vs goals promote different adaptations in the dopamine system of rats. Psychopharmacology, Vol. 191, No. 3. (April 2007), pp. 599-607, doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0535-8 (free PDF)