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I've read many articles / researchs and they are hard to follow. Several times concepts are hard to understand, it would seem certain concepts such as "cognition" are fuzzy terms and they become part of fuzzy explanations.

For example, if I understood correctly, it's asserted that "mental life" and "consciouness" happen in the cerebral cortex. The argument for it, it would seem to be different experiments show the region which activates when someone (awake I suppose) it's making a "consciouss" movement it's the cerebral cortex. Then, when a patient is in coma and makes a movement, it isnt a "consciouss" movement because the cerebral cortex in him isnt working. Isnt this a circular argument? Couldnt someone conclude just the opposite, conclude that movement was conscious and that's evidence not all the mental life/ consciouness happen in the cerebral cortex?

Also, according to some definitions of "cognitive functions",

It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.

Cognition

Cognitive functions are those mental processes that lead to the acquisition of knowledge and allow us to carry out our daily tasks. They allow the subject to have an active role in the processes of receiving, choosing, transforming, storing, processing and retrieval of information, allowing the subject to navigate the world around him.

..

Auditory gnosis: ability to recognize and differentiate between various sounds.

Cognitive functions

And then you have researchs like this one,

Seeing speech affects acoustic information processing in the human brainstem

Afferent auditory processing in the human brainstem is generally assumed to be determined by acoustic stimulus features and immune to stimulation by other senses or cognitive factors.

Seeing speech affects acoustic information processing in the human brainstem

Isnt this research showing there is "information processing" in the brain stem, which would qualify as a "cognitive function", which it would be a "mental process"? Isnt this research saying there are mental processes "mental life" outside of the cerebral cortex?

Then my question is, which are the arguments for asserting mental life/consciouness happen only in the cerebral cortex?

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