I found a website which included the questionnaires of Exercise Motivation Inventory-2 with various languages (EMI-2; http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~pes004/exercise_motivation/emi/emi-2.htm) such as Arabic ( ), Brazilian (Guedes, Legnani, & Legnani, 2012), Dutch ( ), French ( ), German ( ), Italian ( ), Persian ( ), Polish ( ), Portuguese ( ), Spanish (Capdevila, 1999).

1) How can I find out all the references in blanket. 2) alternatively, how to make quotation to indicate there are various languages available in EMI-2.

Thanks a lot

  • $\begingroup$ Welcome. What are you looking for? Journal papers describing the tests? The software developers behind the tests? $\endgroup$ – AliceD Dec 7 '18 at 12:11

For question 1 - How can I find out all the references in blanket.

This will be very difficult if you cannot read and understand the language yourself. If you can, then Google Scholar can possibly be of help. The problem comes when you don't understand the language.

The only one you can easily reference is the Spanish one as the APA reference was provided by the bangor.ac.uk website you referred to. That is of course

Capdevila, LL. (1999). Actividad Física y Estilo de vida saludable. Terrassa: Cardellach, S.A.

Searching Agnieszka Zajac emi-2 to find the Polish version in Google Scholar as an example gives one paper by Zajac and that is in English (Zajac & Schier, 2011), yet it isn't a paper on a Polish version of EMI-2.

Searching for just the name gives lots of papers in Polish, which without being able to understand the language, you cannot ascertain which one provides a Polish version of the EMI-2.

You then have the alternative as asked in question 2

how to make quotation to indicate there are various languages available in EMI-2.

For question 2

This depends on the referencing style you prefer or are required to use. Using the APA referencing style preferred here on this site you could provide the following

Markland, D. (2007). The Exercise Motivations Inventory: The EMI-2. Retrieved from: http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~pes004/exercise_motivation/emi/emi-2.htm Non-English retrieved from: http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~pes004/exercise_motivation/emi/foreign.htm

That way, the author's disclaimer is available whereby he points out that

I cannot guarantee the accuracy of the translations (because I don't speak the languages well enough, if at all!). Nor can I vouch for the psychometric properties of the translated versions. Authors' names are supplied and they may be able to provide information on the validity and reliability of their versions.


Zajac, A. U., & Schier, K. (2011). Body image dysphoria and motivation to exercise: A study of Canadian and Polish women participating in yoga or aerobics. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 4, 67-72. Free PDF: http://www.archivespp.pl/uploads/images/2011_13_4/Zajac67_APP_4_2011.pdf

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