The brain has the abilities to do a lot of marvelous things:
- It can convert electromagnetic waves that reach the eyes into spectacular visions of faces, people, trees, animals, houses, etc.
- It can convert vibrations in the air (sound waves) into the sounds of speech, music, screaming (for help), etc.
- it can convert contacts at the skin into the feeling of touch, vibration, pain, hot, cold, etc.
- It can create a language from arrangements of dots it sees (written languages) or sequences of sounds it hears (verbal languages).
- It can store the information it receives in the form of memory and can retrieve it later when needed.
- It can mark the of danger or reward in the environment by creating emotion of fear or pleasure.
- It can process signals it receives resulting in the complex thinking processes that can solve the encountered dangers/daily problems, complex mathematical/scientific problems, mysteries of the universe, etc.
- And many other things.
Face recognition is one of its abilities. It requires specialized neural circuits to do this function. These specialized circuits are located in specific areas of the brain, especially the FFA (Fusiform face area or fusiform gyrus), Superior temporal sulcus (STS), Anterior middle temporal gyrus (AMTG), prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortex. Although the exact arrangement of the circuits and how they can recognize faces are still not fully understood yet, they are being studied in many centers. You can search for more information about this ability on the net by using the search words like “facial perception” or “brain facial recognition”.
The following references can be the starting point:
- Tsao DY, Livingstone MS. Mechanisms of face perception Annu Rev Neurosci. 2008;31:411-37.
- Dekowska M, Kuniecki M, Jaśkowski P. Facing facts: Neuronal mechanisms of face perception. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2008;68(2):229-52. PMID: 18511959
Some references for mathematical and logic operations of the brain:
Friedrich RM, Friederici AD. Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Semantics PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53699. PMID: 23301101 PMCID: PMC3536745 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053699.
Xie K, Fox GE, Liu J, Lyu C, Lee JC, Kuang H, et al. Brain Computation Is Organized via Power-of-Two-Based Permutation Logic. Front Syst Neurosci. 2016 Nov 15;10:95. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27895562 PMCID: PMC5108790 DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2016.00095
Tsien JZ. Principles of Intelligence: On Evolutionary Logic of the Brain. Front Syst Neurosci. 2016 Feb 3;9:186. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00186. eCollection 2015. PMID: 26869892 PMCID: PMC4739135 DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00186
And for the function of the brain, which is very complex, you can read about it in many textbooks. But one reference that is available on the net (also available as books) is the following:
Purves D, Augustine GJ, David Fitzpatrick D, Hall WC, Lamantia AS, McNamara JO, Williams SM, editors. Neuroscience. 3rd ed. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates Inc; 2004. ISBN-13: 9780878937257 ISBN-10: 0878937250.