If I see your face today then I will recognize you if I see you tomorrow. There must be something similar will happen in my brain for both incident, since the inputs to my body/brain is similar(at least some). So, that means the brain is clustering things/Inputs and I don't force the brain to cluster your face view, this happens automatically. Or may be the brain can calculate how much similar these two views of your face. anyway,may be I am completely wrong. But the question is then how it does? and It applies for any type of sensor input to our brain.

edit: yeah, it should be more specific. I am talking about neocortex.when some similar incident happens then similar regions in neocortex will active, but how does the brain calculates the similarities? it's like the brain can calculate the similarities between two groups of networks. And I trust this site more than others so I'll ask things here.

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    $\begingroup$ Your question is very broad. Could you try to narrow it down a bit to allow for a better answer? Thanks. $\endgroup$ – Liz D. Oct 27 '18 at 18:51
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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to Psychology.SE. We work differently to most SE sites, where we have a strict policy that all questions should show evidence of prior research. Please help us to help you and edit your question to provide more information on what you have read on this subject, what made you ask this question, and any problems you are having understanding your research. If you found nothing, what did you Google? This helps to provide an answer which will be more helpful. If you still have trouble with this, please visit the How to Ask page or Psychology & Neuroscience Meta. $\endgroup$ – Chris Rogers Oct 28 '18 at 1:01
  • $\begingroup$ did I ask something wrong? why -ve vote? $\endgroup$ – bipul kalita Oct 29 '18 at 19:28

The brain has the abilities to do a lot of marvelous things:

  • It can convert electromagnetic waves that reach the eyes into spectacular visions of faces, people, trees, animals, houses, etc.
  • It can convert vibrations in the air (sound waves) into the sounds of speech, music, screaming (for help), etc.
  • it can convert contacts at the skin into the feeling of touch, vibration, pain, hot, cold, etc.
  • It can create a language from arrangements of dots it sees (written languages) or sequences of sounds it hears (verbal languages).
  • It can store the information it receives in the form of memory and can retrieve it later when needed.
  • It can mark the of danger or reward in the environment by creating emotion of fear or pleasure.
  • It can process signals it receives resulting in the complex thinking processes that can solve the encountered dangers/daily problems, complex mathematical/scientific problems, mysteries of the universe, etc.
  • And many other things.

Face recognition is one of its abilities. It requires specialized neural circuits to do this function. These specialized circuits are located in specific areas of the brain, especially the FFA (Fusiform face area or fusiform gyrus), Superior temporal sulcus (STS), Anterior middle temporal gyrus (AMTG), prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortex. Although the exact arrangement of the circuits and how they can recognize faces are still not fully understood yet, they are being studied in many centers. You can search for more information about this ability on the net by using the search words like “facial perception” or “brain facial recognition”.

The following references can be the starting point:

  1. Tsao DY, Livingstone MS. Mechanisms of face perception Annu Rev Neurosci. 2008;31:411-37.
  2. Dekowska M, Kuniecki M, Jaśkowski P. Facing facts: Neuronal mechanisms of face perception. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2008;68(2):229-52. PMID: 18511959

Some references for mathematical and logic operations of the brain:

  1. Friedrich RM, Friederici AD. Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Semantics PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53699. PMID: 23301101 PMCID: PMC3536745 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053699.

  2. Xie K, Fox GE, Liu J, Lyu C, Lee JC, Kuang H, et al. Brain Computation Is Organized via Power-of-Two-Based Permutation Logic. Front Syst Neurosci. 2016 Nov 15;10:95. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27895562 PMCID: PMC5108790 DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2016.00095

  3. Tsien JZ. Principles of Intelligence: On Evolutionary Logic of the Brain. Front Syst Neurosci. 2016 Feb 3;9:186. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00186. eCollection 2015. PMID: 26869892 PMCID: PMC4739135 DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00186

And for the function of the brain, which is very complex, you can read about it in many textbooks. But one reference that is available on the net (also available as books) is the following:

Purves D, Augustine GJ, David Fitzpatrick D, Hall WC, Lamantia AS,‎ McNamara JO, Williams SM, editors. Neuroscience. 3rd ed. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates Inc; 2004. ISBN-13: 9780878937257 ISBN-10: 0878937250.

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    $\begingroup$ @bipul kalita. I don’t think we know exactly how the brain performs comparisons of things for their similarities or differences or how it performs other logic and mathematical operations, such as less than, more than, plus, minus, and multiply. We just know it can do, know the areas involved, and know some basic concepts. I’ve added some more references on these. They might not answer your questions directly but might be of some use. $\endgroup$ – user287279 Oct 28 '18 at 18:29

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