Up until a certain age a child learns through observation.

But there comes a point when a child can learn new concepts by simply having them explained by an adult.

This age is kind of like when the child becomes "programmable".

What age is this? And how many words does a child know at this stage?

And what age can a child be taught algorithms? Like "To do this, you first do this. Then if this happens, do this."

And what age can a child teach other people algorithms?

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    $\begingroup$ But listening to an adult's explanation of some topic is an observation, right? The only difference being observing activity vs. language. $\endgroup$ – user3169 Jul 23 '18 at 4:08
  • $\begingroup$ @user3169. I would say there is a difference between observing to copy and observing to understand. That's why you wouldn't say a parrot is intelligent. $\endgroup$ – zooby Jul 23 '18 at 16:11
  • $\begingroup$ What @user3169 is saying is correct. You said ”Up to a certain age a child learns through observation”, yet children and even adults often learn through observation even when they are listening to verbal communication. There will be observation of tone an voice within the conversation, there will be non-verbal cues to give context... Language is very complex and there are times when even adults slip up when communicating something different to what they intend to. Observation plays a major role in learning all the way through life. $\endgroup$ – Chris Rogers Jul 30 '18 at 6:52
  • $\begingroup$ No denying that. But at a certain age, children can learn through being taught with language. $\endgroup$ – zooby Jul 30 '18 at 20:58

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