What are the top contributions from neuroscience to artificial intelligence and viceversa? How much progress has been made from the interaction between these two fields? Is there a formal research area dedicated to the study of topics in the intersection between AI and neuroscience, with papers being published and maybe conferences being held periodically?
There is a really close correspondence between Auditory Scene Analysis and Computational Auditory Scene Analysis. If you tried to build a speech recognition system, especially for use in noisy environments, while ignoring what we know from auditory psychophysics, physiology, and anatomy, I would guess that you would not get too far. The things we have learned from CASA have lead to better hearing aids and cochlear implants, which in turn have taught us about the auditory system, which of course leads to further improvements in CASA.
Bregman has a nice summary (along with conferences) on his webpage