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What are the top contributions from neuroscience to artificial intelligence and viceversa? How much progress has been made from the interaction between these two fields? Is there a formal research area dedicated to the study of topics in the intersection between AI and neuroscience, with papers being published and maybe conferences being held periodically?

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    $\begingroup$ You ask two questions: (1) top contributions, generalized as 'how much progress', (2) is there a a formal research area dedicated to this. My guess is, if you have an answer to (2), you might more easily do some initial research on (1) yourself. So, I suggest you focus this question on your second question. You can still ask the first follow-up question later, based on input on (2). $\endgroup$ – Steven Jeuris Jun 13 '18 at 7:50
  • $\begingroup$ Asking for "top contributions from x" or similar questions can be considered broad. I would do as @StevenJeuris suggests and narrow the question to just asking what formal research area is dedicated to AI combined with neuroscience. $\endgroup$ – Chris Rogers Jun 14 '18 at 6:00
  • $\begingroup$ Closely related if not an exact duplicate: psychology.stackexchange.com/questions/6451/… $\endgroup$ – Fizz Jul 1 '18 at 14:33
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There is a really close correspondence between Auditory Scene Analysis and Computational Auditory Scene Analysis. If you tried to build a speech recognition system, especially for use in noisy environments, while ignoring what we know from auditory psychophysics, physiology, and anatomy, I would guess that you would not get too far. The things we have learned from CASA have lead to better hearing aids and cochlear implants, which in turn have taught us about the auditory system, which of course leads to further improvements in CASA.

Bregman has a nice summary (along with conferences) on his webpage

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