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In a typical multi-polar neuron, an axon has multiple axon terminals that can connect to another neuron's dendrites.

Are there cases where an axon connects to dendrites of multiple neurons?

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Sure, look at the connectome of C. elegans for example: URB (circled in red) has synaptic connections to IL1, RIC and also to CEP (which also synapses back to URB, showing that cycles in the connectome are possible). Likewise RIS (circled in blue) has synaptic connections to at least 4 different neurons (in this map) and a couple more off-map.

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(click to enlarge)

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In the central nervous system, I think it would be safe to say that most neurons make connections (through their axons) with the dendtrites of multiple downstream neurons.

Some examples:

  1. In the cerebellum, the parallel fibers pass through and makes connections with many Purkinje neurons.

  2. This was recently very beautifully demonstrated in a paper where they filled individual axons in V1 and traced their connections to multiple cortical areas. Science Daily Nature Article

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